10/23/09 12:23 PM The study of intelligence 1 Conceptualizing 2 Measuring 3 Discovering What is intelligence Ability to?. Learn ? not just academic Adapt ? to surrounding environment Metacognition ? thinking about your thoughts Theories of intelligence Galton Developed alb that tested intelligence Physiological measures Problems with Galton Poor predictors Alfred Binet (1857-1991) Mental age (vs chronological) Predicting school achievement Age ? standard method 3years old: show eyes, nose, mouth, name objects in a picture, repeat figures, repeat a sentence of 6 syllables, give last name 5 years old: compare 2 boxes of different weights, copy a square, repeat a sentence of 10 syllables, put together 2 pieces of a game 7 years: indicate omissions in drawings, copy a written sentence, copy a triangle and a diamond, etc. Although Galton and Binet started intelligence testing, they were not testing WHAT intelligence is. One of the first disagreements about intelligence was whether there is one intelligence or many. Spearman?s Two-Factor Model Charles Spearman One general intelligence (g) : one factor underlying specific mental abilities Specific intelligence (s) : specific abilities. Multiple intelligences Howard Gardner Argued that the conception ?g? should be broadened. Special abilities and talents Tony Hawk Lebron James Gardner?s Multiple Intelligences: Linguistic Logical ? mathematical Musical Spatial Bodily-kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist Measuring Crystallized Intelligence Cattell and Horn Depends on experience FLUID intelligence ? abilty to solve problems, reason and remember NOT influenced by experience. Achievement tests Current knowledge usually in a particular subject Actual ability Aptitude tests Ability to learn Expected ability Principles of Test Construction Reliability ? producing similar scores from one administration to the next Reliability makes the test consistent Validity ? test measures what it is supposed to Validity makes the test accurate Standardization ? keeping the testing, scoring and interpretation procedures constant. Standardization makes the test fair. What is IQ? Historically : IQ = (mental age/ chronological age) x 100 Currently: performance on an intelligence test 2/3 people will score between 85 and 115 (average) examples of questions on information part how many days in a year? capital of Connecticut? what is the speed of sound? Examples of vocab Define : dinner, rejoice, mull Where does intelligence come from? Nature vs. Nurture Nature : Twin studies Identical Twins IQ is correlated .72-.86 IQs are more similar than fraternal twins Identical twins reared apart are more similar than fraternal twins reared together. Nature : Adoption studies IQs of biological parents and the children they put up for adoption are MORE HIGHLY correlated than would be expected by chance. Nurture Identical twins? IQs not exactly the same. Adoption studies ? IQ improved if kids are adopted by a higher class. Experiences and opportunities are more common. Deprivation ? lower IQ scores. (less things to learn from around the house, healthcare isn?t as good, nutrition isn?t as good) Current view IQ = an interaction between genetics AND the environment Genetics determine one?s potential range of intelligence Environment determines The Flynn Effect Performance on IQ tests is rising steadily and consistently over time Possible explanations ? Better living conditions. Shift from industrial base to technology based Better nutrition Health Care New Technologies Life span of IQ IQ only becomes consistent at around age 7 Verbal IQ increases with age (until 60) Performance IQ (especially processing speed) declines with age (beginning in mid 20?s) IQ is somewhat stable correlations of .7 - .9 Longitudinal Studies Chapter 10 Intelligence 10/23/09 12:23 PM 10/23/09 12:23 PM
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