Belief in how a person or an organization will act on some future occasion, based upon previous interactions with that person or organization.
Type of justice that is composed of organizational procedures, outcomes, and interpersonal interactions.
Perceived fairness of the allocation of outcomes or rewards to organizational members.
MERIT OR EQUITY NORM
Definition of fairness based on the view that those who work hardest or produce the most should get the greatest rewards. Most common foundation for defining fairness in the United States.
Definition of fairness based on the view that people should receive rewards in proportion to their needs.
Definition of fairness based on the view that people should receive approximately equal rewards. Most common foundation f
Perceived fairness of the process for procedure by which ratings are assigned or rewards are distributed.
Having the possibility of challenging, influencing, or expressing an objection to a process or outcome.
Concerned with the sensitivity with which employees are treated and linked to the extent that an employee feels respected by the employer.
Program that acknowledges that particular demographic groups may be underrepresented in the work environment. Provides specific mechanisms for reducing this underrepresentation.
Differences in demographic characteristics. Also includes differences in values, abilities, interests, and experiences.
The relative make up of various demographic characteristics in particular work groups.
Model for addressing diversity that recruits, selects, trains, and motivates employees so that they share the same values and culture.
Model for addressing diversity in which each element of an organization is valued for what it uniquely brings to the organization.
The degree to which individuals feel safe, valued, and able to be authentic at work both as individuals and as members of various groups.
Study of the characteristics of individuals who become leaders, examining the basis on which they are elected, appointed, or simply accepted.
Study of which behaviors on the part of a designated leader (regardless of how that position was achieved) led to an outcome valued by the work group or organization.
The individual in a group given the task of directing task-relevant group activities or, in the absence of a designated leader, carrying the primary responsibility for performing these functions in the group.
Concentrates on developing, maintaining, or enhancing individual leader attributes such as knowledge, skills, and abilities.
Concentrates on the leader-follower relationship and on developing an environment in which the leader can build relationships that enhance cooperation and resource exchange.
"GREAT MAN" THEORIES
Developed by historians who examined the life of a respected leader for clues leading to that person's greatness. Often focused on a galvanizing experience or an admirable trait (persistence, optimism, or intelligence) that a leader possesses to a singular degree.
Attempts to show that leaders possessed certain characteristics that nonleaders did not.
Examines the types of power wielded by leaders.
Begun by researchers at Ohio State University. Focused on the kinds of behavior engaged in by people in leadership roles and identified two major types: consideration and initiating structure.
Type of behavior identified in the Ohio State studies. Included behavior indicating mutual trust, respect, and a certain warmth and rapport between the supervisor and the group.
Type of behavior identified in the Ohio State studies. Included behavior in which the supervisor organizes and defines group activities and his relation to the group.
Identified by the University of Michigan researchers as an important part of a leader's activities. Similar to initiating structure from the Ohio State studies.
Identified by the University of Michigan researchers as an important part of a leader's activities. Similar to consideration in the Ohio State model.
Identified in the University of Michigan studies. Allows subordinates more participation in decision making and encourages more two-way communication.
Proposed to take into account the role of the situation in the exercise of leadership.
LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE (LMX) THEORY
Proposed that leaders adopt different behaviors with individual subordinates. The particular behavior pattern of the leader develops over time and depends to a large extent on the quality of the leader-subordinate relationship.
People who have high-quality relationships with their leader and high latitude for negotiating their work roles.
People who have low-quality relationships with their leader and little latitude for negotiating their work roles.
LIFE CYCLE OF A LEADER-FOLLOWER RELATIONSHIP
Describes more recent versions of a leader-member exchange (LMX) theory that include a dynamic process in which the task of the leader is to drive the relationship from a tentative first-stage relationship to a deeper, more meaningful one.
Describes the behavior of inspirational political leaders who transform their followers by appealing to nobler motives such as justice, morality, and peace.
Leaders show followers how they can meet their personal goals by adopting a particular behavior patterns: the leader develops social contracts with followers in which certain behaviors will be rewarded.
Leaders display conviction, emphasize trust, take stands of difficult issues, emphasize the importance of commitment and purpose, and are aware of the ethical consequences of their decisions.
Leaders articulate an appealing vision of the future, challenge followers with high standards, talk optimistically with enthusiasm, and provide encouragement and meaning for what needs to be done.
Leaders question old assumptions, values, and beliefs, stimulate new ways of doing things, and encourage expression of ideas and reasons.
Lowest level of leadership identified by Bass (1997) who contrasted it with transactional leadership and transformational leadership
MULTIFACTOR LEADERSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE (MLQ)
Self report instrument used in the development and validation of the theory of transformational leadership.
A personal attribute of a leader that hypnotizes followers and compels them to identify with an attempt to emulate the leader.
Followers are emotionally attached to this leader, never question the leader's beliefs or actions, and see themselves as integral to the accomplishment of the leader's goals.
CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP THEORY
Approach with many different versions of the notion that charisma is related to leadership: (1) in a crisis situation, followers perceive charismatic characteristics in an individual and accept that person as a leader: (2) certain leader behaviors (use of innovative strategies) contribute to a charismatic aura.
GLOVAL LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR EFFECTIVENESS (GLOBE)
Large-scale cross-cultural study of leadership by 170 social scientists and management researchers in over 60 countries.
CULTURE SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS
Leader characteristics that are more acceptable in some countries than others.
Interdependent collection of individuals who work together toward a common goal and share responsibility for specific outcomes for their organizations.
AUTONOMOUS WORK GROUP
Specific kind of production team that has control over a variety of functions including planning shift operations, allocating work, determining work priorities, performing a variety of work tasks, and recommending new hires as work group members.
Team that has widely dispersed members working together toward a common goal and linked through computers and other technology.
INPUT-PROCESS-OUTPUT MODEL OF TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
Provides links among team inputs, processes, and outputs, thereby enabling an understanding of how teams perform and how to maximize their performance.
The attributes of team members, including skills, abilities, experiences, and personality characteristics.
SHARED MENTAL MODEL
Organized way for team members to think about how the team will work, helps team members understand and predict the behavior of their teammates.
Differences in observable attributes or demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity.
Differences in underlying attributes such as skills, abilities, personality characteristics, attitudes, beliefs, and values. May also include functional, occupational, and educational backgrounds.
Informal and sometimes unspoken rules that teams adopt to regulate members' behavior.
Reduced motivation and performance in groups that occurs when there is a reduced feeling of individual accountability or a reduced opportunity for evaluation of individual performance.
Degree to which team members desire to remain in the team and are committed to team goals.
Mode of thinking engaged in by people deeply involved in a cohesive group and when group members desire for agreement overrides their motivation to appraise alternative courses of action realistically.
Tendency for groups to make more extreme decisions than those made by individuals.
A shared perception among employees regarding their work entity, a particular organization, division, department, or work group.
A system in which individuals share meanings and common ways of viewing events and objects.
Extent to which members of the organization share a perception (in the case of climate) or a value/belief pattern (in the case of culture).
Process by which a new employee becomes aware of the values and procedures of an organization.
PERSON-JOB (P-J) FIT
Extent to which the skills, abilities, and interests of an individual are compatible with the demands of the job.
PERSON-ORGANIZATION (P-O) FIT
Extent to which the values of an employee are consistent with the values held by most others in the organization.
ATTRACTION-SELECTION-ATTRITION (ASA) MODEL
Model that proposes that organizations and individuals undergo a process of jointly assessing probable fit based primarily on personality characteristics. Through a process of attraction, selection, and attrition, the goal is to make the workforce homogenous with respect to personality characteristics.
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