Geobiology ? the study of how organisms have influenced and been influenced by earth?s environments. Organisms can change the earth Biosphere ? the part of our planet that contains all of its living organisms. Autotrophs ? producers; organisms that make their own food Heterotrophs ? consumers; get their food by feeding directly or indirectly on producers Cyanobacteria ? use photosynthesis to create carbohydrates Photosynthesis ? stores energy as sugar; uses co2 and h2o; increases weight; produces O Respiration - Releases energy from sugar; releases co2 and h2o; decreases weight; consumes O Greenhouse gases ? co2 and ch4 Biogeochemical cycles ? a pathway through wich a chemical element or molecule moves between the biologic and environmental components of an ecosystem Microbes ? single celled organisms including bacteria, some fungi and algae and protozoa. Fed off of water to live and reproduce Universal tree of life ? the family tree of the hierarchy of ancestors and descendants Universal ancestor ? the single root of the universal tree of life Bacteria ? evolved first and are single celled Archaea ? evolved first and are single celled Eukarya ? evolved later and are multi celled. Have a more advanced cellular structure that makes it possible to form more complex organisms Halo ? very salty environments Thermo ? very hot environments Methano ? very high methane environments Extremophiles ? microbes that live in environments that would kill any other organisms Phile ? shows that the organism has a strong preference for. Anaerobes ? group that live in oxygen deprived environments Aerobic zone ? oxygen rich upper zone of most sediment layers Anerobic zone ? exact opposite (O deprived) ********* sulfur and nitrogen are needed for metabolism Microbial mats ? layered microbial communities. Most likely are those exposed to sun. the most common features preserved in Precambrian sedimentary rocks formed in marine and lake environments. Obtain energy from sunlight. Restricted to areas where animals and plants cant interfere with their growth. Stromatolites ? rocks with distinctive lamination. Believed to be formed from ancient microbial mats Cyanobacteria ? these are microorganisms where photosynthesis originated in. Banded iron formations ? sedimentary rocks composed of alternating thin layers formed of iron oxide minerals, and silica rich minerals. Red beds ? usually sandstones and shales that are red because of the presence of iron oxide cement that binds the grains together. An indication that oxygen is present. Radiation ? the relatively rapid development of new types of organism that derive from a common ancestor
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