Love that occurs when an individual has a deep, caring affection for another person and desires to have that person near; also called companionate love.
Social behavior whose objective is to harm someone, either physically or verbally.
Unselfish interest in helping another person.
Our opinions and beliefs about people, objects, and ideas—how we feel about our world.
The view that people are motivated to discover the underlying causes of behavior as part of their effort to make sense of the behavior.
The tendency for an individual who observes an emergency to help less when other people are present than when the observer is alone.
An individual's psychological discomfort (dissonance) caused by two inconsistent thoughts.
A change in a person's behavior to coincide more closely with a group standard.
The reduction in personal identity and erosion of the sense of personal responsibility when one is part of a group.
An unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because the person belongs to that group.
Giving to another person to ensure reciprocity; to gain self-esteem; to present oneself as powerful, competent, or caring; or to avoid social and self-censure for failing to live up to society's expectations.
Elaboration Likelihood Model
Theory identifying two ways to persuade: a central route and a peripheral route.
A feeling of oneness with the emotional state of another person.
False Consensus Effect
Observers' overestimation of the degree to which everybody else thinks or acts the way they do.
Fundemental Attribution Error
Observers' overestimation of the importance of internal traits and underestimation of the importance of external situations when they seek explanations of an actor's behavior
Group Polarization Effect
The solidification and further strengthening of an individual's position as a consequence of a group discussion.
The impaired group decision making that occurs when making the right decision is less important than maintaining group harmony.
Informational Social Influence
The influence other people have on us because we want to be right.
A model of long-term relationships that examines the ways that commitment, investment, and the availability of attractive alternative partners predict satisfaction and stability in relationships.
Mere Exposure Effect
The phenomenon that the more we encounter someone or something, the more likely we are to start liking the person or thing even if we do not realize we have seen it before.
Normative Social Influence
The influence others have on us because we want them to like us.
Behavior that complies with the explicit demands of the individual in authority.
Favorable views of the self that are not necessarily rooted in reality.
An unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on the individual's membership in a group.
The tendency for a group decision to be riskier than the average decision made by the individual group members.
Self- Perception Theory
Bem's theory on how behaviors influence attitudes, stating that individuals make inferences about their attitudes by perceiving their behavior
Self- Serving Bias
The tendency to take credit for our successes and to deny responsibility for our failures.
Unwelcome behavior or conduct of a sexual nature that offends, humiliates, or intimidates another person.
The process by which individuals evaluate their thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and abilities in relation to others.
Imitative behavior involving the spread of behavior, emotions, and ideas.
Social Exchange Theory
The view of social relationships as involving an exchange of goods, the objective of which is to minimize costs and maximize benefits.
Improvement in an individual's performance because of the presence of others.
The way we define ourselves in terms of our group membership.
Social Identity Theory
The view that our social identities are a crucial part of our self-image and a valuable source of positive feelings about ourselves.
Each person's tendency to exert less effort in a group because of reduced accountability for individual effort.
The study of how people think about, influence, and relate to other people.
A generalization about a group's characteristics that does not consider any variations from one individual to another.
An individual's fast-acting, self-fulfilling fear of being judged based on a negative stereotype about his or her group.
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