means that, at maturity, most males are physically larger and stronger than most females
cultural construction of gender
to emphasize that different cultures have distinctive ideas about males and females and use these ideas to define manhood/masculinity and womanhood/femininity.
evokes th act of building from the raw materials provided by sexual differences, different cultures build up their ideas and beliefs about how the sexes differ and what these fifferences mean
sexual (gendered) division of labor
refers to the patterned ways productive and other economic tasks are allocated to men and women
gender (sex) roles
the rights, duties, and expectations one acquires by virtue of one's sex
is expected that a certain number of people are born who will, when they mature into adulthood, become like the other sex in some ways. custom by which a person of one sex is allowed to adopt the roles and behavior of the opposite sex, with little or no stigma or punishment.
multiple gender identities
many societies have more than two gender idinties defined a third or even a fourth gender of man-woman or woman-man (or not woman-not man, or half man-half woman
the degree to which human groups allocate material and social rewards to women and men based on their gender. unequal rewards include class, caste, family orgions, and race. also referred to as the status of women,
mutual transaction of objects without the use of money or other media of exchange
those who give goods do not expect the recipient to make a return of any definite time in the future
products are transferred to someone (the recipient) and the donor expects a return in products of roughly equal value.
is that both parties attempt to gain all they can from the exchange while giving up as little as possible
the degree to which cultural norms specify persons should be intimate with or emotionally attached to one another
resources collected from many individuals or groups are taken to a central place or put into a common pool or fund
common form of redistribution in the preindustrial world
bought and sold at a price measured in money
limited purpose money
only a few categories of products may be purchased with money, such as food, clothing, and few other things. not land or labor
blood relatives related by birth
in laws related by marriage
social group formed on basis of recognized (including fictive) kin relationship between members
married couple and their unmarried children. it is one kind of kin group
culturally recognized relatives of varying degrees of distance.
a domestic group, or people who live in the same place and share assets and certain responsibilities. one or more families who live in same place.
which individuals who are not actually biological relatives act toward one another as if they are kin.
rules against sexual intercourse between relatives
exogamy (out marriage) means an individual is prohibited from marrying within his or her own family or other kin group, or less often, village or settlement.
endogamy (in marriage) means that an individual must marry someone in his or her own social group
every individual is allowed only one spouse
one man is allowed multiple wives
one woman is allowed multiple husbands
several women and men are allowed to be married simultaneously to one another
"plural spouses" refer to number of spouses allowed to a person, not necessarily to how many spouses most people have
alliance between members of two kin groups, and in many cultures, critical for the well being and survival of intermarried groups
if a womens husband dies, she marries one of his close kinsmen (usually brother)
preserves affinalties between kin groups. if a woman dies, kin group obliged to replace her with another woman from the group, no additional bridewealth is transferred. widow marries relative of deceased wife.
requires a man and or his relatives to transfer wealth to relatives of his bride.
a husband is required to spend a period of time working for the family of his bride.
marital exchange when family of woman transfers a portion of its own wealth, or property to the women (their daughters) and or to her husband and his family
postmarital residence pattern
where most newly married couples in a society establish their residence
couples live with or near the parents of the husband
couples live with or near the parents of the wife
couples may choose to live with either the wife's or husband's kin; roughly half of all couples choose each
couples move back and forth between the households of both sets of parents according to prefrences and circumstances
couples live apart from both parents, establishing a seperate dwelling and independent household
couples live with the maternal uncle of the husband
where a mother (with or without a husband) bears most of the burden of supporting her children economically and nurturing them emotionally and intellectually. family groups consisting of a mother and her children, with male only loosly attached or not present at all.
refers to degree to which culturally valued material and social rewards are given disproportionately to individuals, families, and other kinds of groups
rough equality across familis in access to possessions and wealth objects. wide access to and sharing of productive resources, influence and prestige based on age and personal qualities and achievements
limited number of formal social roles or positions (offices, titles) that grant authority, access to prestigious titles and offices determined largely by hereditary family/kinship ties, rights to resources allocated by those of higher rank
sharply unequal distribution of resources and wealth, large inequalities in access to power and social rewards (prestige)
vague definition and imprecise membership determined by a combination of birth and achievement, class membership broadly determined by occupation and wealth level
named endogamous randed groups with membership normatively based on birth, occupation and activities constrained by caste membership, interaction between members of different castes governed by social rules (segregation, pollution)
refferring to any set of ideas held by a group as in the phrases leftist political ideology and feminist ideology. refer to ideas that justify the status quo of inequality
justify inequality by affecting peoples consciousness not by threatening physical coercion. are believed to large numbers of people based on existing cultural knowledge
functional theory of inequality
theory holding that stratification is a way to reward individuals who contribute most to socity's well-being
conflict theory of inequality
theory holding that stratification benefits mainly the upper stratum and is the cause of most social unrest and other conflicts in human societies
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