The endocrine system supports the normal homeostatic function of the human body and helps it respond to external stimuli.
Understanding the natural activity that takes place in an athletes body is fundamental to sucessful recovery, adaptation, program design and training progression.
A: A cell releases hormone inside itself
P: Involves the release of a hormone to interact with adjacent cells, w/o need for circulation to put the hormone into contract with the target cell.
Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland (anterior/posterior), Thyroid Gland, Parathyroid Gland, Heart, Liver, Andrenal Gland (Medulla & Cortex), Pancreas, Kidneys, Testes, Ovaries
involves the disruption & damage of muscle fibers, an inflammatory response, hormonal interactions, and ultimately the synthesis of new proteins and their orderly incorporation into existing or new sarcomeres. The more muscle fibers recruited for the perfromance of the exercise, the greater the extent of potential remodeling in the whole muscle.
AH: hormones that promote tissue building: insulin, insulin-like growth factors, testosterone & growth hormone
CH: cortisol & progesterone which attempt to degrade cell proteins to support glucose synthesis
How do Polypeptide Hormone (made up of amino acids; ex: GH & insulin) Interactions differ from steriod hormone interactions? Ex: Cytokine-activated JAK/STAT signaling pathway
The specific force produced in activated fibers stimulates receptor & membrane sensitivities to anabolic factors, including hormones, which lead to msucle growth & strength changes.
As few as 1-2 heavy RT exercise sessions can increase the # of androgen receptors (the receptor for testosterone) in the muscel.
Fluid volume shift (ex: blood shifts during exercise)
Tissue clearance rates (ex: rate of processing organs: liver/lungs)
Hormonal degradation (hormone itself breaking down)
Venos pooling of blood (exercise induced increase of VP of blood)
Interactions w/ binding proteins in the blood
Amount of synthesis & storage of H's. Transport or H's via binding proteins. Time need for the clearance of H's through liver, etc. Amount of H degradation. How much blood-to-tissue fluid shift occurs w/ exercise stress. How tightly the H binds to its receptor (receptor affinity), How many receptors are in the tissure. The magnitude of the signal sent to the cell nucleus by the H-RC or STAT. The degree of interaction w/ the cell nucleus (which dictates how much muscle protein to produce).
T can promote GH responses in the pituitary, which can influence protein synthesis. T can interact w/ receptors on neurons, increase the amounts of neurotransmitters, and influence structural protein changes. T can bind to cell membrane receptors allowing increased CA+2 release.
Large muscle group exercises (deadlift/ powerclean/ squat).
Heavy RT (85-95% 1RM)
Moderate to high Vol of exercise
Short rest intervals (30sec to 1minute)
Two years or more of RT experience
*Similar to increases in GH
Decrease glucose utilization & glycogen synthesis.
Increase amino acid transport across cell membranes, protein synthesis, utilization of fatty acids, lipolysis (fat breakdown), avilability of glucose and amino acids, collagen synthesis, retention of nitrogen, sodium, potassium + phosphorus, renal plasma flow & filtration.
Stimulates cartliage growth.
Promotes compensatory renal hypertrophy.
Enhances immune cell function.
Highest levels = night during sleep.
*Alcohol & lack of sleep decreases GH levels
Thyroid hormone &
*GH/ Nutrition Status/ Insulin play a role in the amount of binding proteins cirulating and thus restricting IGF's to their receptors.
Adrenal Cortex: cortisol & glucocorticoid
Adrenal Medulla: cateholamines & peptide F
Medulla = nervous system & thus provides a faster response
Cortex= adrenocoricotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary
a glucocorticoid steroid hormone which is a primary signal hormone for CHO metabolism & is related to the glycogen stores in the muscle.
*If a greater # of receptors are bound to insulin or if T blocks the genetic element in the DNA for cortisol, protein is conserved or enhanced.
Secreted from the Adrenal Medulla & are important from the actue expression of strength & power because they act as central motor stimulators, periperal vascular dilators and enhance enzyme systems in muscle.
force production via central mechanisms
metabolic enzyme activity
muscle contraction rate
Augment secretion rates of other hormones such as testosterone
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