What are the two approaches to studying personality?
Nomothetic approach Idiographic approach
What is the Nomothetic approach?
Seeks general laws about various aspects of personality
What is the Idiographic approach?
Intensive studies of individuals (case studies, profiles)
What is a trait?
Consistent, long lasting
What is a state?
Temporary activation of behavior
What two factors are important when measuring personality?
Reliability and validity
What is reliability?
Consistency of scores
What is validity?
Accuracy of what we are measuring
What is the big five model a list of?
What Traits does the big five model list?
Openness to new experience Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism
What adjectives define openness to new experience?
Curious, flexible, imaginative, and unconventional
What adjectives define conscientiousness?
Disciplined, organized, responsible, and punctual
What adjectives define extraversion?
Outgoing, sociable, assertive, friendly
What adjectives define agreeableness?
sympathetic, trusting, compassionate, and modest
What adjectives define neuroticism?
Anxious, hostile, insecure, and vulnerable
What are criticisms of the big five?
They are based upon a factor analysis of personality words in the dictionary There are too many traits in the big five. should be three. Cultural differences
What are the possible origins of personality?
Culture, environment, genetics, and age.
How does personality change as one gets older?
– Personality becomes more fixed as we grow older. – People become more conscientious and become less extraverted, neurotic, and open to experience as they grow older.
What does Sam Gosling study?
How to determine personality in odd places EX. Online
What is the Barnum effect?
tendency to accept and praise vague statements about our personalities
What are two ways to make a personality assessment?
Use the barnum effect Use standardization
What is standardization?
Administered according to specified rules and interpreted a certain way
What do the following questions measure?
1. I have chest pains several • Psychopathic Deviation times a week. 2. I have the time of my life at • Paranoia parties. 3. There are evil people trying • Extraversion to influence my mind. 4. I get a fair deal from most • Masculinity-Femininity people. 5. I see, hear, and smell things • Schizophrenia that no one else knows about. 6. I like to arrange flowers.
What is MMPI; now MMPI-2-R?
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
What does MMPI measure?
Measures certain personality characteristics and clinical conditions
– Beginning of therapy – Psychological evaluations – Job screenings
What form of personality testing Projects your personality characteristics onto ambiguous stimuli
Projective Personality Measures
what is a popular method used in Projective Personality Measures
The Rorschach Inkblots – 10 inkblots – An “X-ray of the mind?” – Now, interpretation is standardized • Problems with validity and reliability
what is a second method used in projective personality measures?
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – Devised as a means of measuring needs – Story is really about yourself – Results often interpreted using “clinical judgment” – Also has problems with reliability and validity
What are the different methods used in projective personality measures?
The Rorschach Inkblots The Thematic Apperception Test The emothional stroop test Implicit Association Test
What was the outcome of the emotional stroop test and suicide victims?
Suicide attempters took more time to read than non suicide attempters because of emotionally binding words
What is the Implicit Association Test?
• Priming • Measures whether one responds faster to a category that combines a topic with pleasant or unpleasant words • Can measure unconscious preferences • Not accurate enough to classify individuals, but hard to fake results!
How can knowlege of personality be useful with crime situations?
Our knowledge of patterns of behavior sometimes help us profile individuals, such as serial killers – The real life
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