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Only about 2.5% of all the water on our planet is freshwater, however, ________.
A) most of this is in underground aquifers
B) most of this is in polar ice caps, glaciers, and underground aquifers and is not easily accessed for human use
C) over half of this is extremely hard water and is nearly unusable for drinking or agriculture
D) most of this is in large, freshwater lakes
E) over half of this is in wetlands near coastlines and is becoming contaminated with saltwater
Of the following, ________ characterize(s) an oligotrophic lake or pond.
A) high nutrient levels
B) low oxygen concentrations
C) high oxygen concentrations
D) low nutrient levels
E) Both C and D
Precipitation that falls on Earth's surface ________.
A) may take a variety of pathways through surface water or groundwater flow
B) is usually already unusable because of acid rain
C) is mostly taken up by plants or other organisms
D) mostly runs off into salt marshes or the ocean
E) almost entirely filters down into the underground aquifers
One-fifth of Earth's total fresh water supply is in ________.
D) the ocean
E) the tundra
Freshwater wetlands provide important ecosystem services, including ________.
A) slowing runoff
B) reducing flooding
C) recharging aquifers
D) filtering pollutants
E) all of the above
An artesian well occurs when ________.
A) an aquifer is trapped under pressure between two layers that are less permeable
B) granite is overlain by a sandy substrate, allowing percolation into the aquifer
C) a water-bearing, porous layer of rock, sand, or gravel has accumulated groundwater over a long period of time
D) there are several aquifers that have merged
E) a well is dug through layers of sand and gravel into the water table
Humans allocate approximately 70% of their annual freshwater use for ________.
A) agricultural irrigation and providing water for livestock
B) washing and home use
C) electrical production
D) mining and industrial processes
E) drinking and cooking
Water bodies where rivers flow into the oceans, mixing fresh water with saltwater, are called ________.
C) littoral ecosystems
D) salt marshes
Of the following, ________ best describes floodplains.
A) an area where flood irrigation of crops is used, such as a rice paddy
B) an area that is incidentally flooded when farming or mining operations change the course of rivers
C) a region of land that has been deliberately, permanently flooded due to human disturbance, such as in dam building
D) a region of land that is periodically flooded when a river overflows
E) an area that is periodically flooded because humans have altered the landscape
Oceans have absorbed approximately one-third of the excess carbon dioxide that humans have added to Earth's atmosphere so far. This has slowed the progression of global climate change, but it has led to ________.
A) growth of oyster populations worldwide
B) loss of oxygen from the oceans
C) a decrease in the pH (ocean acidification)
D) an increase in the pH of the world's oceans
E) increases in growth of coral reefs
We build dams to ________.
A) drain wetlands for urban development
B) improve habitat for native fish
C) control the spread of water borne diseases
D) transform watersheds into farms, towns, and recreational areas
E) generate electricity, prevent flooding, and provide irrigation and drinking water
Dam removal in this country ________.
A) will probably continue because the environmental impacts of dams are reviewed periodically
B) will probably increase rapidly as we move to a more fossil-fuel-dependent society
C) is controversial because dams provide such good habitats for native species
D) provides many new jobs and opportunities and so is economically beneficial
E) will assist with our transition to more natural forms of renewable energy
Data indicate that the present rate of freshwater consumption in most developed countries is ________.
A) increasing groundwater storage and decreasing surface water storage
B) irrelevant, as water is not currently limiting
C) only a problem in areas not on the coast
D) sustainable for the foreseeable future
Why was the irrigation of Soviet cotton farming operations a problem?
A) There was governmental opposition that limited water access, killing crops.
B) It angered local resort communities, which did not want farming in the region.
C) Irrigation water came from rivers feeding into one of the largest lakes on Earth and resulted in major contamination of that source.
D) It was, for the most part, not a problem.E) It drained the Aral Sea and resulted in the loss of 60,000 fishing jobs
Water in the surface zone of the ocean is, for the most part ________.
A) the saltiest
B) the coldest
C) the densest
D) depleted of oxygen
Which of the following will contribute to water conservation?
A) Planting non-native wetland plants for landscaping
B) Watering lawns during peak sunlight hours, when plants need water most
C) Watering lawns at night, using low-flow faucets, landscaping with native plants
D) Using aerial sprays for crop irrigation
E) Washing dishes by hand
The area that underlies the shallow water bordering continents is called the ________.
A) groundwater aeration zone
B) pelagic zone
C) water table
D) benthic zone
E) continental shelf
Of the following, ________ is one of the major pollutants of groundwater.
A) carbon dioxide
B) home garbage
C) acid rain
D) fertilizers from agricultural fields
E) treated sewage from cities
Pathogens and waterborne diseases enter drinking water supplies from ________.
A) oil and chemical spills
B) excess nitrogen and phosphorus as agricultural runoff
C) poorly treated wastewater or from animal wastes from feed lots
E) pesticides entering groundwater
You want to maintain a healthy pond at your school site. Last year another pond became eutrophic; to avoid that, you want to ________.
A) increase the carbon-based fertilizers in the littoral zone
B) avoid increasing phosphorus runoff into the limnetic zone
C) decrease the calcium available in the profundal zone
D) increase the ozone in the littoral zone
E) provide nitrogen for good nutrient mixing in the benthic zone
All of the following are examples of point sources of pollution except ________.
A) a large farm
B) a sewer pipe
C) a factory discharging wastes into a lake through a large outlet
D) a car repair shop dumping waste oil into the storm drainE) an overturned tanker truck that spills into a creek
Wastewater that is stirred and aerated so that aerobic bacteria consume most of the small pieces of organic matter in the wastewater is being subjected to ________.
B) primary treatment
C) basic treatment
D) tertiary treatment
E) secondary treatment
The "blue-baby" syndrome that suffocates infants is a consequence of excess ________ in the water supply.
B) E. coli
The primary effect of thermal pollution on aquatic ecosystems is ________.
A) lowering the pH of the water
B) lowering the water table
C) causing a large increase in plant productivity
D) increased evaporation
E) depleting dissolved oxygen
Zooxanthellae are ________.
A) bacteria that fix nitrogen in ocean sediments
B) symbiotic algae that provide energy to many species of corals
C) an invasive kelp species in the Indian Ocean
D) an endangered species of fish in the Aral Sea
E) used in the treatment of wastewater
The initial consequence of falling water tables would be the loss of ________.
A) birds that live in upland areas
B) agricultural irrigation water
C) trees that do best with low precipitation
D) deep lakesE) mammals that thrive in dry habitats
A septic system is ________.
A) a rural method of handling sewage
B) a second level mechanism to remove bacteria at a wastewater treatment plant
C) a toxic or badly polluted waterway
D) an early version of a wastewater treatment plantE) the use of natural wetlands to cleanse wastewater
In a municipal water treatment plant, the primary treatment step consists of ________.
A) filtering the sewage
B) chlorinating the sewage
C) stirring the sewage to increase oxidation
D) letting sewage sit in large tanks so suspended solids settle out
E) adding bacteria to the sewage
Much of the biosolids material that is the end product of a water treatment plant is ________.
A) used as crop fertilizer in the United States
B) trucked to special biohazard landfills for disposal
C) loaded onto barges and sent to underdeveloped countries to use as fertilizer
D) placed in deep injection wells to keep it out of the water table
E) used as part of the "fill" to develop wetlands into agriculture or housing areas
The exceptionally strong warming of the eastern Pacific is referred to as ________.
A) cyclonic storm formation
C) La Niña
D) the Coriolis effect
E) El Niño
A) is the flow of warm water upward toward the ocean surface
B) occurs in areas where there are no currents
C) transports oxygen from deep to surface waters
D) brings benthic nutrients to the ocean surface promoting high primary productivityE) occurs when winds blow at right angles to a coastline
Overpumping groundwater in coastal areas can cause ________ to move into aquifers, making the water undrinkable.
C) untreated sewage
D) hard water ions
E) suspended solids
Xeriscaping can save water by ________.
A) creating wetlands instead of landscaping
B) eliminating landscape plantings, replacing plants with rocks, sand and sculpture
C) planting invasive exotic plant species
D) collecting rain water and storing it in cisterns or tanks
E) planting native or drought-resistant plants with little or no water requirements
Recent research that analyzed the content of commercial bottled water indicates that ________.
A) all surveyed brands had information about the source and how it was treated
B) bottled water has no contamination from hormone mimic plasticizers
C) bottled water consumes less fossil fuels in reaching the consumer than tap water does
D) bottled water is significantly cheaper than tap water
E) bottled water is no safer or purer than most samples of tap water
Artificial wetlands ________.
A) are the major program for replacing lost natural wetlands
B) purify water for use as bottled drinking water
C) can help purify water and also provide recreational opportunities
D) are a source of arsenic contamination in BangladeshE) are created using xeriscaping methods
Salt marshes are ________ ecosystems, while mangroves are ________.
A) temperate intertidal; found on subtropical and tropical shorelines
B) dominated by kelp; found in coral reefs
C) tropical intertidal; found on temperate shorelines
D) benthic; freshwater tropical ecosystems
E) freshwater; pelagic
A) refers to the accidental capture of animals
B) is the practice of returning female and young fish back to the ocean
C) is fishing for two species of fish concurrently
D) is fishing only at deep levels of the ocean
E) is fishing only at the surface of the ocean
Many present-day fisheries managers ________.
A) favor short-term solutions to marine ecosystem problems
B) want all laws regarding fishing to be abolished
C) favor taxes on commercial fishing boats
D) wish to set aside areas of ocean where systems can function without human interference
E) favor protection of commercially valuable species and not others
Most marine protected areas ________.
A) prohibit the installation if oil pipelines and fiber-optic cable lines within them
B) ban fishing and extractive activities
C) have been established without the consent of the United States
D) are in the open oceans
E) are along the coastlines of developed nations
The rapid melting of Greenland's ice cap could disrupt the NADW formation by ________.
A) reversing the El Niño-La Niña cycle
B) adding heat and salt to deep ocean waters
C) adding huge amounts of less dense fresh water to the surface of the system
D) acidifying ocean waterE) adding excess nutrients to cold northern waters
In thermohaline circulation of global current systems, surface water is ________.
A) warm and dense
B) driven by winds from north to south
C) saltier and colder
D) less salty, less dense, and warmer
E) cold and dense
A 2003 study reported that ________% of large-bodied fish and sharks were lost in the first decade of industrialized fishing.
Currently, the greatest ecological crisis facing marine food webs is ________.
A) abandoned fishing nets
C) oil spills
E) plastic dumping
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