A place where the same people work, play, eat, sleep, and recreate together on a continuous basis (Erving Goffman). Life within these is closely planned by those in control, and activities are strictly scheduled.
The habits, customs, mores, values, and beliefs of inmates in correctional institutions; also, the inmate social world. (Prisonization and prison code)
the Inmate (or Prison) Subcultural
the process by which inmates adapt to prison society
A set of norms and values among prison inmates.
The special language of the inmate subculture. EX: peckerwood, ball busters, wolf, shakedown, ad chester.
A white prisoner
A male inmate who assumes an aggressive role during homosexual relations.
A cell search
A child molester
What are the 9 male inmate types?
Mean dude, hedonist, opportunists, retreatist, legalist, radical, religious, colonist, and realist
Male inmate who is dangerous, quick to fight, and best left alone, He receives frequent write-ups for violations and spends a lot of time in solitary confinement.
Male inmate who builds life around limited pleasures in prison (smuggling, gambling, drug running, homosexuality, etc.)
Male inmate who takes advantage of positive experiences prison has to offer, such as schooling, trade programs, counseling, etc.
Male inmate who attempts some form of psychological retreat from realities of prison.
Male inmate who is the "jail house" lawyer. He fights confinement through the law.
Male inmate who views himself as a political prisoner where society = the oppressor.
Male inmate who has strong religious ties and may be "born again."
Male inmate who views prison as home. He often holds a position of power and/or respect, doesn't look forward to leaving prison, and has been known to commit new crimes to return to prison.
Male inmate who sees incarceration as a natural consequence of criminal activity.
This is both CONSTRAINED and PROMOTED by prison subculture.
Homosexuality in prison
Words within argot describe this, newcomers are frequently preyed upon, sex is used as a commodity, and prison rape does occur.
Facts of homosexuality in prisons
Established a zero tolerance standard for prison rape, made prison rape prevention a top priority in correctional facilities and systems, and increased the availability of information on the incidence and prevalence of prison rape.
the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA)
At the start of 2011, there were more than ____ women in state and federal facilities.
Makes up 7% of the total prison population and is increasing at a faster rate than male inmates.
the Female Inmates World
Unique family-like structures, common in women's prisons, where inmates assume roles similar to those of family members in free society. In these, inmates derive emotional and social support from their membership (similar to gangs in male prisons).
An estimated ____ women prisoners give birth each year. Few institutions allow women prisoners to keep newborns with them in prison. ___ % of all women prisoners have children under the age 18.
4,000; 80% (Mothers in Prison)
Violence is less frequent than in men's facilities and sometimes comes from _____.
staff (Violence in Women's Prisons)
Administrative Staff, Program Staff, Custodial Staff, Service and Maintenance Staff, and Volunteers.
Prison Staff Hierarchy
A correctional officer personality who enjoys giving orders and the feeling of power derived from doing so.
A correctional officer personality who tries to befriend inmates, who, in turn, try to gain special treatment.
A correctional officer personality who provides commodities to inmates, often in violation of institutional rules.
A correctional officer personality who is unmotivated and bored and does little beyond the basic job requirements.
Insensitive prison administration and neglected inmate demands, carry-over of violent criminal lifestyles, dehumanizing prison conditions (overcrowding, lack of personal expression), regulate inmate society and redistribute power among inmates, and power vacuums.
Causes of Riots in Prisons
New approach taken on by American courts prior to the 1960s, towards the running of prisons. Rested on the belief that inmates experienced civil deaths.
the Hands-Off Doctrine
The legal status of prisoners in some jurisdictions who are denied the opportunity to vote, hold public office, marry, or enter into contracts by virtue of their status as incarcerated felons.
In this court case, the U.S. Supreme Court established the "balancing test."
Pell v. Procunier 1974
A principle that attempts to weigh the rights of individuals against the states authority to make laws or otherwise restrict a persons freedom in order to protect its interests and its citizens.
A prisoners ___ can be censored for security reasons. Magazines, newspapers, etc. must come from the publisher, although violent inmates may be banned rom receiving magazines, pictures, and newspapers altogether.
Receipt of mail
Court case where the Supreme Court upheld a policy that prohibited all inmate visits.
Block v. Rutherford 1984
_____ get no special privileges for interviews, but cannot be denied correspondence.
Court case that established that prisoners must be given a "reasonable opportunity" to pursue their faith.
Cruz v. Beto
Court case that recognized the right of prisoners to petition in court. It is the duty of the state to assist prisoners in preparation and filing of legal papers. It is because of this case that libraries are now allowed in prisons.
Bounds v. Smith 1977
In this court case, the U.S. Supreme Court concerned itself with "deliberate indifference" on the part of staff toward prisoners' needs for medical attention. Court held prison responsible for providing appropriate medical care.
Estelle v. Gamble 1976
_____ _____ requires both actual knowledge and disregard of risk or harm.
Based on the 8th amendment, inmates have the right to what 4 things?
Food, water and shelter, protection from foreseeable attacks, protection from predictable sexual attacks, and protection against suicide.
Most major supreme court cases have held that prisoners DO NOT have a reasonable expectation to ______ when incarcerated.
Prisons must provide formal opportunities to hear inmate _____.
grievances; handled internally
Prisons have established procedures whereby an inmate files a complaint and receives ____ _____.
Mandated Responses; dissatisfied inmates may appeal to an external source.
Courts generally have held that inmates going before disciplinary hearing boards are entitles to what 4 things?
1) Notice of Charge
2) The chance or organize a defense
3) An impartial hearing
4) The opportunity to present witnesses and evidence on their behalf
Designed to reduce the # of frivolous lawsuits alleging unconstitutional prison conditions and reduce the # of state inmates filing lawsuits in federal courts. Opponents argue that it could stifle inmates facing real deprivations.
Prison Litigation Reform Act of 1996
Most infected inmates come to prison already infected. Others contract the virus while incarcerated.
What are 3 issues facing prisons today?
AIDS, Geriatric Inmates, and Mentally Deficient/Ill Inmates
What are 3 strategies to reduce the transmission of AIDS in prison?
Segregation, Education, and Prevention
The # of prisoners ages 55 and over increased 450% between 1990 and 2009. They have special needs.
Some inmates are neurotic, have personality problems, or have serious psychological disorders. Few state run correctional facilities have any substantial capacity for in-depth psychiatric treatment of inmates who are seriously mentally disturbed.
Mentally Deficient/Ill Inmates
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