Focus on the physiological changes that occur when someone encounters an excessively challenging situation.
Relational View of Stress
Holds that stress is a particular relationship between the people and the situations in which they find themselves.
Psychologists measure stress as a stimulus by...
Quantifying the number of stressors a person experiences during a given period.
Two major categories of stressors are...
(1) Major Life Events
(2) Daily Hassles
"Social Readjustment Rating Scale" Created by Holmes and Rahe in the late 1960's to quantify stress in terms of major life changes.
Hassles and Uplifts Scale
Measures the frequency and intensity of minor irritations (hassles) and postive events of daily life that may counteract their damaging effects.
Major limitation of looking at stress in terms of stressors is...
Not all people view situations in the same way
Lazarus and Folkman's Two Kinds of Appraisal
Primary Appraisal Secondary Appraisal
Quick assesment of the meaning of a given environmental event for the individual. The outcome of this appraisal determines whether an emotional response might occur.
Self-assessment of the resources available to cope with stress. When we find ourselves in a stressful situation, we try to figure out what to do about that situation, how to resolve it, or how to make the unpleasant feeling it creates go away.
When stressful situations lead to negative emotions, physiological changes occur in the...
- Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) - Endocrine System - Brain
ANS's Role in Stress
Circulatory System: pump blood to large muscle groups during times of emergency Respiratory System: provide the oxygen required so that those muscles can function.
Endocrine System's Role in Stress
Consists of the major hormone-releasing glands.
The hormonal systems involved in emotions and stress. The major structures involved in the system are the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the adrenal glands.
Hormones that control ANS activation.
Hormones responsible for maintaining the activation of physiological systems during emergencies.
A major neuroendocrine pathway stimulated during stress in which the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system.
A neurotransmiter that activates the sympathetic response to stress, increasing heart rate, rate of respiration, and blood pressure in support of rapid action.
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) Axis
A major neuroendocrine pathway relevant to the stress response involving the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and the adrenal cortex.
The stress homone; it is produced by the body to mobilize the body's energy resoures during stressful situations.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
As defined by Hans Selye, a generalized, nonspecific set of changes in the body that occur during extreme stress. Consists of three stages; alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
The phase of the GAS in which all of the body's resources respond to a perceived threat.
The phase of the GAS when other ways of coping with the stress are developed.
The phase of the GAS when all resources for fighting the threat have been depleted and ilness is more likely.
In the 1970's he did reaserach that seriously challenged Selye's assumption that the stress response is a general one. Mason showed that an animal's response to a stressor differed depending on its physiological state.
Process by which the body achieves stability through physiological change.
Brain structure that plays a pivitol role in memory. Contains one of the highest concentrations of cortisol receptors in the brain. Stress reduces neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and it may inhibit the synaptic plasticity meaning less learning.
Act of dealing with stress or emotions.
Richard Lazarus and Susan Folkman's two types of coping strategies.
1. Problem Focused Coping 2. Emotion Focused Coping
Way of dealing with stress that aims to change the situation that is creating stress.
Way of dealing with stress that aims to regulate the experience of distress. Reappraisal, distancing, escape-avoidance, seeking social support, self-control, and accepting responsiblity.
Way of coping with stress through writing or talking about the situation.
A coping strategy that combines problem and emotion focused coping.
Social support works as a buffer only under certain conditions, such as a highly stressful life.
Positive Traits, Positive Emotions
Positive emotions can imporve your psychological health. Positive emotions may facilitate recovery from the physiological effects of negative emotions.
The idea that emotional factors can lead to the occurrence or worsening of ilness.
The study of psychological factors related to health and illness.
Physiological Reactivity Model
Examines how the sustained physiological activation associated with stress response can affect body systems in such a way as to increase the likelihood that illness or disease occurs.
Health Behavior Approach
Focuses on the behaviors in which people engage, such as diet, exercise, or substance abuse, that may make them more susceptible to illness or may enhance health.
The heart, blood, and all the blood vessels.
The science of how psychological factors relate to changes in the immune system.
Any foreign substance that triggers an immune response.
Ader and Cohen
Did an experiment that showed connections between the CNS and the immune system. Soon after scientists discovered that the ANS is linked to immune system structures and can produce certain stress hormones. This evidence led to the field of PNI.
Form of immunity that is the first response to antigens.
Immunity provided by antibodies or cells produced in the body in response to specific antigens.
The immune response that occurs when the T lymphocytes (T Cells) fight antigens.
Increases susceptibility to disease by reducing the body's ability to fight invading bacteria or viruses or its ability to fight off potentially cancerous cells, or both.
Number one killer of both men and women in the US.
Type A Behavior Pattern (TABP)
a way of responding to chellenge or stress, charactarized by hostility, impatience, competitiveness, and time urgency. Greater risk for heart disease they thought.
She found that out of all the Type A characteristics, Hostility was the one that correlated most to higher rate of heart disease. Her findings ended the Type A studies and turned focus more towards more specific measures of hostility.
Cardiovascular Reactivity (CVR) Model
Hypothesis that hostility can increase the likelihood of heart disease through at least two different pathways. pg 482
a mood disorder involving sadness and lethargy, is associated with increased severity of symptoms and increased risk of death from coronary heart disease.
an eating disorder in which people cannot maintain 85% of their ideal body weight for their height, have an intense fear of eating, and have a distorted body image.
an eating disorder characteried by binge eating and a perceived lack of control during the eating session.
Midfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)
Kabat-Zinn and his colleagues have examined the effectiveness of this program for treating a variety of physical and psychological conditions. He found reduced self reported pain and reduction in anxiety, depression, and fear.
HIV replicates by...
latching on to the T-Cells. Hapiness reduces disease progression in men with HIV.
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