Last Modified: 2011-07-11
Related Textbooks:Microbiology: An Introduction, Books a la Carte Edition (10th Edition)
more resistant to high osmotic pressure. grow in high sugar/salt. require less nitrogen than bacteria. can metabolize complex carbs.
Hyphae- the long filaments. can grow to huge proportions.
Mycelium- mass of hyphae
Septa- cross walls in hyphae. divides in cell-like units.
Vegetative hypha: obtains nutrients
Reproductive/aerial: projects above surface.
Budding: divide unevenly
fission: divide evenly
mold forms: vegetative/aerial hyphae
Pathogenic d. Fungi: yeastlike (37 C) moldlike (25 C)
Conidiospore/condium: unicell/multicellular spore not in a sac. Conidia are made in a chain at the end of a conidiophore (aerial hyphae with conidiospores)
ex: Coccidioides immitis
Bastoconidia: buds coming off parent.
ex: Candida albicans, cryptococcus
Chlamydoconidium: thick walled spore from hyphal segment.
ex: C. albicans
Sporangiospore: formed in sac (sporagium). made by Rhizopus.
Karyogamy: Fusion of nuclei of 2 cells. Form diploid zygote nucleus.
Meiosis: diploid nucleus makes haploid nuclei
Zygospore: fusion of haploid cells: 1 zygospore
Basidiospore: formed outside on a pedestal (basidium)
A: asexual, lost ability to sex
make sporangiospores (asexual) and zygospores (sexual)
Ascospores and frequently conidiospores
rRNA sequence mostly in Ascomycota, few in Basidiomycota
Penicillium (came from mutation in a teleomorph)
Asexual (fragment breaks off) and sexual (meiosis, plasmogamy)
Spores are formed outside on a base pedestal
Pneumocystis: opportunistic fungus (most aids patients)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae- makes bread and wine
Trichoderma: makes enzyme cellulase which removes pant cell walls to make fruit juice
Can also be used to prevent undesired fungal growth on fruits
also decomposes plant litter/organic material
unicellular, filamentous, or multicellular
multicellular body: thallus
all replicate asexually, some both
Red algae: make agar
Green: mostly microscopic
Diatoms: unicellular. Silica/pectin cell walls.
Dinoflagellates: unicellular, mostly plankton. some make neurotoxins: kill fish. some make red tides.
chlorophyll a/c, carotene, xanthins
some symbionts in marine animals
(How do they work together?)
Holdfasts (hyphae) anchor lichen to surface. Algae makes carbs for fungus and fungus protects algae.
Cellular slime mold life cycle: amoebas ingest bacteria and aggregate, enclosed in a sheath forming a slug. Slug migrates and makes spore cap structure. Spores released to form amoeba.
Acellular/plasmodial slime mold life cycle:
Trophozoite: feeding/growing stage. feeds on bacteria and nutrients.
Reproduce asexually by fission, budding or schizogony (multiple fission)
Some reproduce by conjugation (cell-cell contact)
Some make protective capsule, Cyst. lets it survive in adverse conditions.
Trichomonas Vaginalis: no cyst so must be transferred quickly. Can be transmitted sexually or by toilet/towels.
Giardia lamblia: in small intestine of humans. Excreted in feces as cyst, survives
Entamoeba histolytica- only pathogenic amoeba in human intestine. Causes amoebic dysentery. In humans, causes cell lysis.
Ex: Plasmodium, malaria. Grows by reproduction in Anopheles. Definitive host.
Toxoplasma gondii (cats)
Cryptosporidium- causes respiratory/gallbladder infections in AIDS patients, immunosuppressed. lives in intestine.
hemoflagellates: blood parasites.
Trypanosoma: kissing diseases.
Words From Our Students
"StudyBlue is great for studying. I love the study guides, flashcards, and quizzes. So extremely helpful for all of my classes!"
Alice, Arizona State University
"I'm a student using StudyBlue, and I can 100% say that it helps me so much. Study materials for almost every subject in school are available in StudyBlue. It is so helpful for my education!"
Tim, University of Florida
"StudyBlue provides way more features than other studying apps, and thus allows me to learn very quickly! I actually feel much more comfortable taking my exams after I study with this app. It's amazing!"
Jennifer, Rutgers University
"I love flashcards but carrying around physical flashcards is cumbersome and simply outdated. StudyBlue is exactly what I was looking for!"