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Psychologist Dr. James is researching the effect of clinical depression on the body's immune system. What is Dr. James's specialty?
Health psychology is the study of the interrelationships between
psychological factors and physical health.
Dr. Judah Levine is a health psychologist. Thus he might do which of the following?
Help a mayor design a campaign to reduce teen smoking in his city
Pressures or demands placed on an organism are termed
Which of the following definitions best describes distress?
A state of emotional or physical suffering, discomfort, or pain
According to recent APA surveys, what portion of Americans say they are facing extreme levels of stress in their lives?
Chan experiences distress. Which psychological disorders is Chan most prone to develop?
Depression and anxiety
When surveyed by the APA regarding their reactions to stress in the past month, most respondents reported the physical symptom of ________ and the psychological symptom of ________.
fatigue; irritability or anger
Sources of stress are called
John was late for work after being caught in a traffic jam. Then he got caught in the rain walking from the parking garage to his office. In terms of stress, John's experiences are best described as
Five students were late for Professor Brown's Psychology 101 class. Which one was late because of a hassle?
Drew, who overslept because his old alarm clock stopped working that morning
There are five receptionists working in the Dr. Feld's office. Which one appears to suffer from chronic stress?
Carmen, whose son has autism and who always appears exhausted at work
Which life event will garner a college student the most points on the College Life Stress Inventory?
Five college pals were talking about what had happened to them during the day. According to the College Life Stress Inventory, which one experienced the most stressful event?
Tal, who said, "I got a call from the clinic telling me I tested positive for viral hepatitis."
Major changes in life circumstances are called
What is true about life events?
They can occur unexpectedly.
Sela experienced a life event when she
Which of the following people is experiencing stress because of frustration?
Andor, who wants to attend Harvard but does not have the grades or money to achieve his goal, so he unhappily attends a local college instead
Which of the following definitions best describes frustration?
A negative emotional state that results when efforts to pursue a goal are blocked
Eduardo is stressed because he aspires to join the full-time faculty at a local university, but the university will hire him only as a temporary instructor since he lacks a Ph.D. In Eduardo's case, the source of stress is
Shandra experiences tension because she has two competing goals that must both be resolved. The term used by psychologists to describe Shandra's source of stress is
Pauline would like to be a full-time college student. However, she also would like to work full-time. She is a single mother and would prefer not to leave her child in day care all day. The state of tension that she feels is most accurately labeled
Which type of conflict is generally considered the LEAST stressful?
Which type of conflict is most likely to cause feelings of ambivalence?
Emilio arrives at the movie theater planning to see a new thriller. When he gets there, he is surprised to discover that a new comedy that he has wanted to see is also playing. He may be experiencing what type of conflict?
Karen's parents gave her two choices: either stay home and babysit with her younger sister or let her sister come along when Karen and her girlfriends go to the movie. Karen didn't want to do either. What type of conflict is she facing?
An approach-avoidance conflict occurs when someone faces
a goal that is simultaneously attractive and unpleasant.
A multiple approach-avoidance conflict occurs when someone faces
two or more goals, each of which is simultaneously attractive and unpleasant.
Henri has the opportunity to go to a party. His best friend from high school, whom Henri has not seen for five years, will be there. However, Henri's former girlfriend will also be there. They had a big fight recently, and Henri still gets upset when he sees her. He is facing what sort of conflict?
Matilda is at a reception. The dinner choices are chicken and beef, her two favorite entrees. However, chicken sometimes upsets her stomach, and the beef has a lot of saturated fat, which Matilda is trying to avoid for health reasons. She is facing what sort of conflict?
A psychological disorder characterized by maladaptive reactions to life-threatening events or stressors is
posttraumatic stress disorder.
Which of the following statements is true about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?
PTSD can involve a re-experiencing of the traumatic event in flashbacks.
All of the following are symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder EXCEPT
Keisha suffers from posttraumatic stress disorder. Her primary symptoms are inability to relax and difficulty falling asleep. Keisha's symptoms are an example of which aspect of PTSD?
What percentage of New Orleans residents are estimated to have developed PTSD in the months following Hurricane Katrina in 2005?
All of the following are warning signs of trauma-related stress EXCEPT
committing too easily to decisions.
At the company picnic, you could easily tell which employee exhibits a Type A behavior pattern; she was the one who
insisted that the potato sack race be repeated because her partner didn't hear the word "go."
One way to describe a person with a Type B behavior pattern is to say that he is
Compared to people with a Type B behavior pattern, people with a Type A behavior pattern may have a higher risk of
coronary heart disease.
The key element in a Type A behavior pattern that appears to account for the increased risk of coronary heart disease is
Kendra takes the test of Type A personality in your text. Responding "yes" to which statement will increase her score on "Type A"?
"I tend to interrupt other people when they are talking."
A recent study of Mexican Americans linked frequent positive emotions with
normal levels of blood pressure.
Molly goes to live in Italy for three years. Molly feels a lot of pressure to adapt to the values, linguistic preferences, and customs of the Italian people. Molly is at risk of experiencing
Why is acculturation described as a double-edged sword?
Because the process is stressful in itself ,and it also leads to the erosion of traditional values, which increases vulnerability to stress
Which of the following statements is true about acculturation?
Bolstering children's sense of pride and value in their culture helps them to cope with the effects of
What is bicultural theory concerned with?
Examining the relationship between immigrants' psychological health and ethnic identity
The third stage of response to a stressor is
The fight-or-flight response occurs during which stage of the general adaptation symdrome (GAS)?
Which of the following is the correct order of stages in the general adaptation syndrome (GAS)?
Alarm, resistance, exhaustion
Another name for the resistance stage of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is
Which researcher is nicknamed "Dr. Stress"?
Harriet is the victim of a recent mugging. Right now, her body is attempting to return to a normal biological state. Arousal is somewhat high, and Harriet exhibits anger and fatigue. In which stage of the GAS is Harriet?
Regarding the general adaptation syndrome, which of the following statements is true?
The alarm stage responses are prewired into the human nervous system.
Which of the following statements regarding men and women's responses to stress is true?
Under stress, women tend to be more nurturing than aggressive and men tend to be more aggressive than nurturing.
"Tend and befriend" best describes the pattern typically followed by which of the following in times of stress?
Which part of the brain coordinates the endocrine system's response to stress?
In the stress response, ________ is to corticotrophin-releasing hormone as ________ is to adrenocorticotrophic hormone.
hypothalamus; pituitary gland
During a stress response, the adrenal cortex secretes
Benita was just in a car accident. Although her physical injuries are minor, her body mobilized for the stress response. Benita's adrenal glands have just released hormones known as the stress hormones. What are these hormones?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) targets the ________, whereas adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) targets the ________.
pituitary gland; adrenal glands
During the stress response, heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are increased by
epinephrine and norepinephrine.
The specialized white blood cells that protect the body against disease-causing organisms are called
All of the following are antigens EXCEPT
Antibodies, which are produced by the immune system, are
specialized protein molecules.
Which of the following statements about stress and the immune system is FALSE?
The only way to acquire immunity to antigens is through immunization or vaccination.
College student Penelope notices that she is more susceptible to catching a cold during final exams. Penelope's increased susceptibility is probably due to the fact that during these times, her body has a lower production of
Stress and physical illness are linked through the actions of
cortisol and other stress hormones.
One way that chronic stress affects the immune system is by increasing levels of
What is the role of social support in coping with stress?
Social support has primarily positive effects for those coping with stress.
Which of the following best describes self-efficacy?
Our belief that we can accomplish what we attempt
Other factors being equal, which of the following people is most likely to suffer from the effects of stress?
Claire, who has a low level of self-efficacy
Compared to people with low self-efficacy, people with high self-efficacy
have an increased ability to withstand stress.
Which stressors tend to have the greatest impact?
Stressors that are unpredictable and uncontrollable
The three key traits identified by Suzanne Kobasa as being associated with psychological hardiness are internal locus of control, openness to challenge, and
Michael has an internal locus of control, so he believes that
his rewards are a direct consequence of his actions.
Which of the following statements is true about psychological hardiness?
Psychological hardiness is associated with fewer physical symptoms and less depression during times of stress.
All of the following serve as buffers against stress EXCEPT
an external locus of control.
Psychological hardiness is a
cluster of personality traits associated with increased resilience to stress.
Answering "strongly agree" to which of the following statements will increase your score on an optimism quiz?
"In uncertain times, I usually expect the best."
Paul has just failed a psychology midterm. If Paul is high in psychological hardiness, his response to the failure is likeliest to be which of the following?
"This failure is like a challenge. I'm going to work twice as hard and prove to myself that I can master this stuff."
Ogden is an optimist, and his brother Foster is a pessimist. Compared to Ogden, Foster is more likely to
manifest social anxiety.
All of the following statements regarding research on optimism are true EXCEPT:
People who are overly optimistic are better able to handle setbacks in life.
In the United States, what are the two leading killer diseases?
Heart disease and cancer
About how many annual deaths in the United States are the result of heart disease?
Francis has a disorder in which the blood flow to his heart is insufficient for its needs. What disorder does Francis suffer from?
Coronary heart disease
Narrowing of arteries due to a buildup of fatty deposits is called ________, whereas hardening of the arteries is called ________.
What is the scientific term for "hardening of the arteries"?
Which of the following statements is true about coronary heart disease?
One cause of heart attacks is an arterial blood clot blocking the flow of blood to part of the heart.
The four leading risk factors for coronary heart disease are smoking, cholesterol, hypertension, and
The most prominent risk factor for coronary heart disease is age. At which age does the risk of CHD increase?
Which of the following is true when it comes to gender differences in risk for CHD?
Men are at greater risk until age 65.
Which of the following statements is true regarding smoking and coronary heart disease?
Smoking doubles the risk of heart attack.
Other factors being equal, which man is at highest risk for death from coronary heart disease?
Ben, an African American
All of the following are reasons given to help explain the higher rates of coronary heart disease among African Americans EXCEPT:
They are genetically predisposed to coronary heart disease.
Persistent emotional arousal may damage the cardiovascular system as a consequence of the production of
epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Stress hormones increase the risk of potentially dangerous clots by
increasing the "stickiness" of blood clotting factors.
Which stress hormone is primarily responsible for increasing the stickiness of blood clotting factors, which, in turn, heightens the risk of heart attack and stroke?
Five friends have decided to quit smoking. Which one is going about it the correct way?
Rose, who told the other four girls that she will not be able to hang out with them anymore until they quit smoking
All of the following suggestions will be beneficial to a person who wants to quit smoking EXCEPT:
"Try to quit 'cold turkey.'"
What is the leading cause of cancer death in women?
Which of the following statements is true about cancer?
Cancer develops when cells lose the ability to regulate growth.
Which of the following is NOT a cause of cancer?
Which of the following lead(s) to two of every three cancer deaths in the United States?
Smoking and diet
About ________ percent of lung cancer deaths are directly related to smoking, and about ________ percent of total cancer deaths are related to dietary patterns.
High consumption of saturated fat is linked to which types of cancer?
Prostate and colorectal
Which of the following statements is true about controllable lifestyle factors and cancer?
Alcohol consumption raises the risk of mouth, pharynx, and esophagus cancers.
Basal cell carcinoma is the ________ common type of skin cancer and it is ________ dangerous.
Which of the following statements is true about skin cancer?
Melanoma is the most deadly type of skin cancer.
Melanoma accounts for ________ percent of skin cancers, and it claims approximately ________ lives in the United States every year.
Bonita has a chronic lung disease in which her bronchial airways often become blocked or obstructed. Which disease does Bonita have?
What is the role of stress in asthma?
Stress may increase susceptibility to attacks by asthma sufferers.
What is the most common type of headache?
All of the following factors can trigger a migraine headache EXCEPT
constricted blood vessels
Im balances in which neurotransmitter are associated with migraine headaches?
Which of the following statements is true about migraine headaches?
Migraine headaches can be triggered by hormonal fluctuations.
The bacterium H. pylori is found in which part of the body?
Which of the following statements regarding peptic ulcers is FALSE?
Stress is the major cause of peptic ulcers.
What do scientists suspect is the role of stress with regard to peptic ulcers?
It increases the release of stomach acid, which, together with H. pylori, causes peptic ulcers.
Biofeedback is recommended for management of which of the following?
Sylvia decided to take various measures to try to lower the stress in her work environment. Most of the measures were helpful. The one that was NOT was
sticking to set deadlines.
What percent of Americans engage in regular physical activity?
Which of the following women appears to be handling stress in the most effective manner?
Gabrielle, who keeps a journal where she writes down disturbing thoughts
Joan is a teacher who also helps provide care for her aging parents. Lately Joan has been feeling apathetic toward her job. In addition, she has been having more headaches and difficulty sleeping. Joan's condition is best described as
Inordertomoreeffectivelydealwithstress,Rodneyrepeatsthefollowingwheneverheencountersan obstacle: "This is not a catastrophe. I am a good problem solver. I can find a solution." Which method for removing distress from stress is Rodney using?
Replacing stress-inducing thoughts with stress-busting thoughts
Wynona is a Type A personality, and she is starting to experience physical problems as a result of stress. According to the text, Wynona should try to do which of the following to reduce stress?
Engage in conversation while eating.
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