Money Growth and Inflation 12 Inflation Inflation Increase in the overall level of prices Deflation Decrease in the overall level of prices Hyperinflation Extraordinarily high rate of inflation * The Classical Theory of Inflation The level of prices and the value of money Inflation Economy-wide phenomenon Concerns the value of economy?s medium of exchange Inflation - rise in the price level Lower value of money Each dollar - buys a smaller quantity of goods and services * The Classical Theory of Inflation Money demand Reflects how much wealth people want to hold in liquid form Depends on Credit cards; ATM machines; Interest rate Average level of prices in economy Demand curve ? downward sloping * The Classical Theory of Inflation Money supply Determined by the Fed and banking system Supply curve - vertical Monetary equilibrium In the long run Overall level of prices adjusts to: Demand for money equals the supply * How the supply and demand for money determine the equilibrium price level 1 * Quantity of Money 0 (high) (low) Value of Money, 1/P 1 ¾ ½ ¼ Price Level, P 1 1.33 2 4 (high) (low) Money Demand Quantity fixed by the Fed Money Supply A Equilibrium value of money Equilibrium price level The horizontal axis shows the quantity of money. The left vertical axis shows the value of money, and the right vertical axis shows the price level. The supply curve for money is vertical because the quantity of money supplied is fixed by the Fed. The demand curve for money is downward sloping because people want to hold a larger quantity of money when each dollar buys less. At the equilibrium, point A, the value of money (on the left axis) and the price level (on the right axis) have adjusted to bring the quantity of money supplied and the quantity of money demanded into balance. The Classical Theory of Inflation The effects of a monetary injection Economy ? in equilibrium The Fed doubles the supply of money Prints bills; Drops them on market Or: The Fed ? open-market purchase New equilibrium Supply curve shifts right Value of money decreases Price level increases * An increase in the money supply 2 * Quantity of Money 0 (high) (low) Value of Money, 1/P 1 ¾ ½ ¼ Price Level, P 1 1.33 2 4 (high) (low) Money Demand M1 MS1 A When the Fed increases the supply of money, the money supply curve shifts from MS1 to MS2. The value of money (on the left axis) and the price level (on the right axis) adjust to bring supply and demand back into balance. The equilibrium moves from point A to point B. Thus, when an increase in the money supply makes dollars more plentiful, the price level increases, making each dollar less valuable. M2 MS2 B 1. An increase in the money supply . . . 2. . . . decreases the value of money . . . 3. . . . and increases the price level. The Classical Theory of Inflation Quantity theory of money Quantity of money available Determines the price level Growth rate in quantity of money available Determines the inflation rate * The Classical Theory of Inflation A brief look at the adjustment process Monetary injection Excess supply of money Increase in demand of goods and services Price of goods and services increases Increase in price level Increase in quantity of money demanded New equilibrium * The Classical Theory of Inflation The classical dichotomy & monetary neutrality Nominal variables Variables measured in monetary units Real variables Variables measured in physical units Classical dichotomy Theoretical separation of nominal & real variables Monetary neutrality Changes in money supply don?t affect real variables * The Classical Theory of Inflation Velocity and the quantity equation Velocity of money (V) Rate at which money changes hands V = (P × Y) / M P = price level (GDP deflator) Y = real GDP M = quantity of money * The Classical Theory of Inflation Velocity and the quantity equation Quantity equation: M × V = P × Y Quantity of money (M) Velocity of money (V) Dollar value of the economy?s output of goods and services (P × Y ) Shows: an increase in quantity of money Must be reflected in: Price level must rise Quantity of output must rise Velocity of money must fall * Nominal GDP, quantity of money, & velocity of money 3 * This figure shows the nominal value of output as measured by nominal GDP, the quantity of money as measured by M2, and the velocity of money as measured by their ratio. For comparability, all three series have been scaled to equal 100 in 1960. Notice that nominal GDP and the quantity of money have grown dramatically over this period, while velocity has been relatively stable. The Classical Theory of Inflation Five steps - essence of quantity theory of money Velocity of money Relatively stable over time Changes in quantity of money (M) Proportionate changes in nominal value of output (P × Y) * The Classical Theory of Inflation Five steps - quantity theory of money Economy?s output of goods and services (Y) Primarily determined by factor supplies And available production technology Because money is neutral Money does not affect output * The Classical Theory of Inflation Five steps - quantity theory of money Change in money supply (M) Induces proportional changes in the nominal value of output (P × Y) Reflected in changes in the price level (P) Central bank - increases the money supply rapidly High rate of inflation. * Hyperinflation Inflation that exceeds 50% per month Price level - increases more than a hundredfold over the course of a year Data on hyperinflation Clear link between Quantity of money And the price level Money and prices during four hyperinflations * Four classic hyperinflation, 1920s Austria, Hungary, Germany, and Poland Slope of the money line Rate at which the quantity of money was growing Slope of the price line Inflation rate The steeper the lines The higher the rates of money growth or inflation Prices rise when the government prints too much money Money and prices during four hyperinflations * Money and prices during four hyperinflations (a, b) 4 * This figure shows the quantity of money and the price level during four hyperinflations. (Note that these variables are graphed on logarithmic scales. This means that equal vertical distances on the graph represent equal percentage changes in the variable.) In each case, the quantity of money and the price level move closely together. The strong association between these two variables is consistent with the quantity theory of money, which states that growth in the money supply is the primary cause of inflation Money and prices during four hyperinflations (c, d) 4 * This figure shows the quantity of money and the price level during four hyperinflations. (Note that these variables are graphed on logarithmic scales. This means that equal vertical distances on the graph represent equal percentage changes in the variable.) In each case, the quantity of money and the price level move closely together. The strong association between these two variables is consistent with the quantity theory of money, which states that growth in the money supply is the primary cause of inflation The Classical Theory of Inflation The inflation tax Revenue the government raises by creating (printing) money Tax on everyone who holds money The Fisher effect Principle of monetary neutrality An increase in the rate of money growth Raises the rate of inflation But does not affect any real variable * The Classical Theory of Inflation The Fisher effect Real interest rate = Nominal interest rate ? Inflation rate Nominal interest rate = Real interest rate + Inflation rate Fisher effect: one-for-one adjustment of nominal interest rate to inflation rate When the Fed increases the rate of money growth Long-run result Higher inflation rate Higher nominal interest rate * The nominal interest rate and the inflation rate 5 * This figure uses annual data since 1960 to show the nominal interest rate on 3-month Treasury bills and the inflation rate as measured by the consumer price index. The close association between these two variables is evidence for the Fisher effect: When the inflation rate rises, so does the nominal interest rate The Costs of Inflation A fall in purchasing power? Inflation fallacy ?Inflation robs people of the purchasing power of his hard-earned dollars? When prices rise Buyers ? pay more Sellers ? get more Inflation in incomes - goes hand in hand with inflation in prices Inflation does not in itself reduce people?s real purchasing power * The Costs of Inflation Shoeleather costs Resources wasted when inflation encourages people to reduce their money holdings Can be substantial Menu costs Costs of changing prices Inflation ? increases menu costs that firms must bear * The Costs of Inflation Relative-price variability & misallocation of resources Market economies Rely on relative prices to allocate scarce resources Consumers - compare Quality and prices of various goods and services Determine allocation of scarce factors of production Inflation - distorts relative prices Consumer decisions ? distorted Markets - less able to allocate resources to their best use * The Costs of Inflation Inflation-induced tax distortions Taxes ? distort incentives Many taxes More problematic in the presence of inflation Tax treatment of capital gains Capital gains ? Profits: Sell an asset for more than its purchase price Inflation discourages saving Exaggerates the size of capital gains Increases the tax burden * The Costs of Inflation Inflation-induced tax distortions Tax treatment of interest income Nominal interest earned on savings Treated as income Even though part of the nominal interest rate compensates for inflation Higher inflation Tends to discourage people from saving * How inflation raises the tax burden on saving 1 * Economy A (price stability) Economy B (inflation) Real interest rate Inflation rate 0 8 Nominal interest rate (real interest rate + inflation rate) Reduced interest due to 25 percent tax (.25 × nominal interest rate) After-tax nominal interest rate (.75 × nominal interest rate) After-tax real interest rate (after-tax nominal interest rate ? inflation rate) 4% 0 4 1 3 3 4% 8 12 3 9 1 In the presence of zero inflation, a 25 percent tax on interest income reduces the real interest rate from 4 percent to 3 percent. In the presence of 8 percent inflation, the same tax reduces the real interest rate from 4 percent to 1 percent. The Costs of Inflation Confusion and inconvenience Money Yardstick with which we measure economic transactions The Fed?s job Ensure the reliability of money When the Fed increases the money supply Creates inflation Erodes the real value of the unit of account * The Costs of Inflation A special cost of unexpected inflation: arbitrary redistributions of wealth Unexpected inflation Redistributes wealth among the population Not by merit Not by need Redistribute wealth among debtors and creditors Inflation - volatile & uncertain When the average rate of inflation is high * Movie The Wizard of Oz Based on a children?s book ? 1900 Allegory about U.S. monetary policy in the late 19th century 1880 ? 1896 Price level fell by 23%; unanticipated Major redistribution of wealth Farmers in west ? debtors Bankers in east ? creditors Real value of debts increased Enriched the banks at the expense of the farmers The wizard of Oz and the free-silver debate * Possible solution to the farmers? problem Free coinage of silver During the gold standard Quantity of gold determined Money supply & Price level Free-silver advocates Silver and gold - to be used as money Increase money supply Pushed up the price level Reduced the real burden of the farmers? debts The wizard of Oz and the free-silver debate * L. Frank Baum Author of the book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Midwestern journalist Characters - protagonists in the major political battle of his time Dorothy: Traditional American values Toto: Prohibitionist party, also called the Teetotalers Scarecrow: Farmers Tin Woodsman: Industrial workers Cowardly Lion: William Jennings Bryan Munchkins: Citizens of the East The wizard of Oz and the free-silver debate * L. Frank Baum Characters Wicked Witch of the East: Grover Cleveland Wicked Witch of the West: William McKinley Wizard: Marcus Alonzo Hanna, chairman of the Republican Party Oz: Abbreviation for ounce of gold Yellow Brick Road: Gold standard In the end of the story ? Dorothy find her way home Not by just following the yellow brick road Magical power of her silver slippers The wizard of Oz and the free-silver debate * Populists Lost the debate over the free coinage of silver Get the monetary expansion and inflation that they wanted Increased supply of gold New discoveries - Klondike River in the Canadian Yukon Mines of South Africa Money supply & price level started to rise The wizard of Oz and the free-silver debate *
Want to see the other 37 page(s) in Chapter 12.ppt?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!