Chapter 13 Notes Biologically grounded but meaning is socially constructed. ?Inter-group relations based on ethnic and racial background have played a powerful role in shaping both interaction and opportunity.? (Witt 290.) Race- Ambiguous, but often founded on physical characteristics Ethnicity- Complex, origin/ancestry, cultural traits, physical Look up ?life chances? in Witt Social Systems of racial/ethnic classification: -Processes that divide people into categories. -Categories implicitly or explicitly ranked on a scale of social worth. Minority Groups- Subgroups denied full participation and equal access. They may be in the majority numerically yet they are the minority in equality. Minority Groups lack privilege. White Privilege Whether noticeable or not white people in society have privilege?s whether its from getting a job easier, being comfortable in situations, or not being subject to discrimination those of the Caucasian decent have an advantage in American society. Stereotypes- Unreliable generalizations- all members of group- doesn?t recognize individual differences. This happens through social interaction and socialization. Prejudice- Negative attitude toward entire category of people. We learn this through social interaction ad socialization. Racial Formation- A socio-historical process in which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed, and destroyed. Ethnocentrism- The tendency to assume that one?s own culture and way of life represent the nor or are superior to all others. Racism- The belief that one race is supreme and all others are innately inferior. Hate Crime- A criminal offense committed because of the offender?s bias against an individual based on race religion, ethnicity, national origin, or sexual orientation. Color-Blind Racism- The use of race-neutral principles to perpetuate a racially unequal status quo. In a system where inequality based on race and ethnicity is built into the structure of society, unwillingness to address these issues explicitly in those terms serves to perpetuate the status quo. Discrimination- The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or other arbitrary reasons. While prejudice is a way of thinking discrimination is an action. Racial Profiling- Any police initiated action based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than on a person?s behavior. Institutional Discrimination- The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operations of a society.
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