The study of the causes and consequences of sociality
How people interact with each other Revolves around the two goals of survival and reproduction
How people change each other
How people understand each other
Species that form societies in which large numbers of individuals divide labor and cooperate for mutual benefit Only 4 species: humans, hymenoptera, termites, and naked mole rats
-Behavior whose purpose is to harm another -Strategy used by just about every animal on the planet not for it's own sake but as a way of getting the resources it wants -Varies with time and geography
Animals aggress when and only when their goals are frustrated EX. Chimp wants banana (goal) but the pelican is about to take it (frustration) so the chimp threatens the pelican with his fist (aggression)
Why are men more physically aggressive than women?
-Crimes mostly by YOUNG men (90% of murders and 80% of violent crimes) -Aggression is strongly correlated with testosterone although society usually does encourage males to be more aggressive than females (BOTH BIO AND CULTURE DETERMINE AGGRESSIVENESS) -Men with unrealistically high self-esteem are more likely to be aggressive than men with low self-esteem
How does testosterone "turn on" aggression?
-It promotes aggression by making people feel concerned with their status, powerful, and confident in their ability to prevail -Lowers people's sensitivity to sign of threat
What evidence suggests that culture can influence aggression?
In the south, men are taught to react aggressively when they feel their status has been challenged. One experiment that insulted southern and northern people showed that southerners were more likely to feel their status was diminished by the insult and they experience a greater increase in testosterone as well as were more physically assertive when a BIG man got in their way as they left the room.
-Behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit.
What makes cooperation risky?
-The Prisoner's Dilemma: You have to risk yourself and trust another in order to get the lightest sentence -Two things you can do to minimize the risk: 1. Learn how to spot a cheater (people can do this well) 2. React strongly when you detect someone cheating (people do this)
Hypothesis Confirming Bias
-Requires one person (divider) divides a monetary prize into two parts and offers one to the parts to a second player (decider) who can either accept or reject the offer -Deciders typically reject the offer because they would rather get noting than get cheated (people will pay to punish someone who cheated them)
-A collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others
How do groups lessen the risks of cooperation?
-Group members are positively prejudiced toward other members and tend to discriminate in their favor -Because group members favor other group members, cooperation within the group is less risky
A positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership
A positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership
Why do groups under perform individuals in a wide variety of tasks?
-When groups try to make decision they rarely do better than the nest member would have done alone -They don't fully capitalize on the expertise of their members -Spend time talking about info that everyone knows but it unimportant -Like to maintain harmony rather than "rock the boat"
-When immersion in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values -People are most likely to consider their personal values when their attention is focused on themselves and being in groups draws our attention to others and away from ourselves
Diffusion of Responsibility
When individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way
Behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself
-The process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives -Means that cooperating with relatives is not really altruistic
Behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future
Are human beings really altruistic?
Yes. We donate to charity, tip waitors when we will never come back, hold the door fro strangers, and rescue strangers (9/11)
Why are women choosier than men?
1. Sex is potentially more costly for women than men 2. Reputation costs are higher for women (sluts)
Culture can exaggerate, equalize, or even reverse risks so that men are choosier: Higher the risk = more selective people tend to be
A feeling that is caused by situational, physical, and psychological factors
Situational Factors (attraction)
-Proximity provides the opportunity for attraction and the motivation (you work harder to like people you are in closer contact with) -Mere exposure effect -
Mere Exposure Effect
-The tendency for the frequency of exposure to a stimulus to increase liking -EX. people tend to like stimuli that they have seen before even if they are not aware of seeing it -EX. Men asked to complete survey and call woman after: Ones who met woman in middle of swaying bridge called more than ones who met woman at the end of bridge (mistaken feeling from swaying bridge as sign of attractiveness to woman)
Physical Factors (attraction)
First thing people notice is looks
What kind of information does physical appearance convey?
-Nature has designed humans to be attracted to people who have good genes and will be good parents -Body shape is an indicator of male dominance and female fertility -Symmetry and averageness are signs of genetic health -Younger women and Older men
Psychological Factors (attraction)
-Intelligence, sense of humor, sensitivity, and ambition are high on just about everybody's list of inner qualities to look for -We are most attracted to people who are generally similar to us on my psycho dimensions -Gender is the only variable that has a consistent preference for dissimilarity
Why is similarity such a powerful determinant of attraction?
1. It is easier to interact with people who are similar to us because we can instantly agree on a wide range of issues 2. When someone shares our beliefs, we become more confident that we are correct 3. We tend to like people who like us and especially people who like us and dont like anyone else
Why do people form long-term romantic relationships?
Infants are not born fully developed and need years of love and care from more than one person
-An experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction -Brings people together, has rapid onset, begins to diminish within a few months
-An experience involving affection, trust and concern for a partner's well-being -Keeps people together; takes time to get started, grows slowly, and need never stop growing (love felt early is not same love felt later)
How do people weigh the costs and benefits of their relationships?
-Marriage satisfaction is only weakly correlated with Marriage stability -Social Exchange
-The hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits -Generally true with three caveats: Comparison level, equity, and lower cost-benefit ratio after putting alot into another relationship
The cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserve or could attain in another relationship
-A state of affairs in which the cost-benefit ratios of two partners are roughly equal -Spouses are more distressed when their respective cost-benefit ratios are different than when they are unfavorable (even when it is more favorable than their partner's)
The ability to control another person's behavior
-People are motivated to seek pleasure and avoid pain -Social influence often involves creating situations in which others can achieve more pleasure by doing what we want them to do
How effective are rewards and punishments?
-They are often quite effective -Can backfire because people don't like to be manipulated -Reward can backfire because if first given a reward for an action then asked to do the same action without the reward then what's the point in doing it?
The Approval Motive
-Acceptance is better than rejection which leaves us vulnerable to social influence
-Customary standards for behavior that are widely shared by members of a culture -The behavior of others can define a norm
-Occurs when another person's behavior provides information about what is appropriate
Norm of Reciprocity
-The unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them -Every human culture has one -STRONG! -Doesn't always involve swapping but the swapping doesn't always involve favors
-A strategy that used reciprocating concessions to influence behavior -You someone for something more valuable than what you really want, wait for them to refuse, then ask for what you really want -
-The tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it -Results in part from normative influence
Why do we do what others tell us?
-Obedience -Much of powerful people's influence is normative: we think they know best and they set the norm so we obey
The tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do
The Accuracy Motive
-Right is better than wrong -
-An enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event -Tells us what we should do
-An enduring piece of knowledge about an object or even -Tells us how to do it
-A phenomenon that occurs when a person's behavior provides information about what is good or right -EX. looking up at a building and then others will to -Not concerned with approval/disapproval like normative influence is
When is it more effective to appeal to reason or to emotion?
Reason: Systematic Habit/Emotion: Heuristic
Occurs when a person's attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person
-The process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason and logic -Assumes that people will be more persuaded when evidence and arguments are strong rather than weak
-The process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion -Assumes that people will often use simple heuristics (simple short cuts or rules of thumb) to help them decide whether to believe a communication
Why do we care about being consistent?
-We are motivated to be accurate and because consistency is a rough measure of accuracy, we are motivated to be consistent as well because people will be more likely to believe us
-A technique that involves a small request followed by a larger request -EX. asking to sign a petition for safe driving then asking to put an ugly sign in their yard
-An unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs -When people feel this way they try to alleviate the feeling by changing their actions, attitudes, or beliefs -Sometimes we value things BECAUSE we paid for them
What happens when we are inconsistent?
-We can justify them with large consistencies -We change our beliefs (cognitive dissonance) to be consistent
The processes by which people come to understand others based on the categories to which people belong and the things they do and say
-The process by which we draw inferences about others based on knowledge of the categories to which they belong -Four properties: inaccurate, overused, self-perpetuating, automatic
Why are stereotypes useful?
-They allow us to make inferences about people that we have never met before -EX. you offer a kid candy not a cigar
The process by which people identify a stimulus as a member of a class of related stimuli
Why aren't stereotypes changed by experience?
-Even when we directly observe people we can end up with inaccurate beliefs about the groups to which they belong -EX. we associate rare events with rare people which is why the majority group associates crimes (rare) with minorities (also rare)
How does categorization warp perception?
-The mere act of categorizing a stimulus tends to warp our perceptions of that category's variability -EX. We tend to underestimate variability within categories and overestimate variability between categories -When we underestimate the variability of a human category we overestimate how useful our stereotypes can be
In what way are stereotypes like viruses?
Once they take up residence inside us, they perpetuate themselves and resist even our most concerted efforts to eradicate them
-The tendency for people to see what they expect to see -Stereotypes perpetuate themselves in part by biasing our perception of individuals, leading us to believe that those individuals have confirmed our stereotypes even when they have not
-The tendency for people to cause what they expect to see
-Fear of confirming an observer's stereotype -Occurs when people know that observers have a negative stereotype about them
-The tendency for people who are faced with disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them -We modify when it is slightly different but consider something an "exception" when it is a lot different rather than abandoning our stereotype
Can we decide not to stereotype?
-Stereotyping happens unconsciously and automatically -Happens for both blacks and whites -Trying to not use stereotypes can make us use them more (not on purpose) -It is not inevitable: people can learn how to keep their stereotypes from influencing their behaviors
Why don't people's behavior always tell us something about them?
-The relationship between what a person is an what a person says or does is not always straightforward -Sometimes behaviors just tell us the situation a person is in -EX. An honest person may lie to save a friend and a dishonest person may tell the truth to boost their credibility
-Inferences about the causes of people's behaviors
-Made when we decide that a person's behavior was caused by some temporary aspect of the situation in which it happened -EX. He was lucky that the wind carries the ball into the stands
-Made when we decide that a person's behavior was caused by his or her relatively enduring tendency to think, feel, or act in a particular way -EX. He's got a great eye and a powerful swing
Covariation Model of Attribution
-We use three kinds of information (consistency (regularity), distinctiveness (generality), and consensus typicality)) to decide whether to make a dispositional or situational attribution -People do not always use this information as they should
Why do we make dispositional attributions?
-Correspondence Bias -The situational causes of behavior are often invisible -Situational attributions tend to be more complex than dispositional attributions adn require more time and attention
-The tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person's behavior was caused by the situation -Sometimes called the fundamental attribution error because it is SO common -More likely to occur under some circumstances than others
-The tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviors while making dispositional attributions for the identical behavior of others -Occurs because people typically have more information about the situations that caused their own behavior than other people's
According to the notion of bystander intervention, if you have a heart attack in public it is probably better for you if there is a ____ around.
A small group of people
The court system relies on juries, or groups of people, to make enormously important decisions everyday. According to research on group behavior and decision-making, groups tend to make decisions that are ____ the decisions made by an average member of the group.
The same as or worse than
When small inconsistencies are justified by large consistencies, cognitive dissonance:
Does not occur
Aggressing because you feel bad
12. When we ____ the variability of human categories, we feel ____ in using our stereotypes.
4. In Queens, New York, a young woman was attacked and killed in the courtyard of her apartment complex. Although many of her neighbors were home, could hear her screams and some could even see the attack, none of them called police. This best illustrates:
Diffusion of responsibility
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