? Extremely small and ancient (3.5 billion years) ? Ubiquitous ? Lack an organized nucleus and membrane-bound organelles ? Circular strand of DNA localized at nucleoid ? Rigid cell walls (composed of peptidoglycan in Bacteria) ? Cell wall encased by ?capsule? of polysaccharide slime ? Store food in inclusions as poly-B-hydroxybutiric acid (lipid like) or glycogen (starch like) ? Distinct flagella ? Binary fission
The temporary fusion of pairs of bacteria, protozoa, and certain algae and fungi during which genetic material is transferred between the two individuals.
purple and green bacteria
retain crystal violet stain
Aerobic, Chl a
found around azolla, has heterocysts
origin of oxygenic photosynthesis
our oxygen-rich atmosphere, ozone, and life as we know it
electrons are acquired by splitting water
oxygen is byproduct
most important step in the evolution of life on earth
? Oxygen produced was initially absorbed by iron deposits (red iron-oxide) ? Only after about 2100 million years did oxygen began to accumulate in atmosphere ? Protective ozone (O3 ) layer developed ? This permitted the origin of aerobic respiration
GENE AMPLIFICATION by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
Requires DNA to be denatured at ~96oC, but also requires DNA polymerase
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