Open-Economy Macroeconomics: Basic Concepts 13 International Flows of Goods & Capital Closed economy Does not interact with other economies in the world Open economy Interacts freely with other economies around the world * International Flows of Goods & Capital Flow of goods: exports, imports,& net exports Exports Goods & services Produced domestically Sold abroad Imports Goods and services Produced abroad Sold domestically * International Flows of Goods & Capital Flow of goods: exports, imports,& net exports Net exports Value of a nation?s exports Minus the value of its imports Also called trade balance Trade balance Value of a nation?s exports Minus the value of its imports Also called net exports * International Flows of Goods & Capital Flow of goods: exports, imports,& net exports Trade surplus Excess of exports over imports Trade deficit Excess of imports over exports Balanced trade Exports equal imports * International Flows of Goods & Capital Factors - influence a country?s exports, imports, and net exports: Tastes of consumers for domestic & foreign goods Prices of goods at home and abroad Exchange rates People use domestic currency to buy foreign currencies Incomes of consumers at home and abroad Cost of transporting goods from country to country Government policies toward international trade * Increasing importance of international trade and finance 1950s, imports and exports: 4-5% of GDP Recent years: exports-increased more than twice; imports ? increased more than three times Increase in international trade Improvements in transportation Advances in telecommunications Technological progress Government?s trade policies The increasing openness of the U.S. economy * The internationalization of the U.S. Economy 1 * This figure shows exports and imports of the U.S. economy as a percentage of U.S. gross domestic product since 1950. The substantial increases over time show the increasing importance of international trade and finance. International Flows of Goods & Capital Flow of financial resources: net capital outflow Net capital outflow Purchase of foreign assets by domestic residents Foreign direct investment Foreign portfolio investment Minus the purchase of domestic assets by foreigners * International Flows of Goods & Capital Variables that influence net capital outflow Real interest rates paid on foreign assets Real interest rates paid on domestic assets Perceived economic and political risks of holding assets abroad Government policies that affect foreign ownership of domestic assets * International Flows of Goods & Capital Equality of net exports & net capital outflow Net exports (NX) Imbalance between A country?s exports and its imports Net capital outflow (NCO) Imbalance between Amount of foreign assets bought by domestic residents And the amount of domestic assets bought by foreigners Identity: NCO = NX * International Flows of Goods & Capital Equality of net exports & net capital outflow When NX > 0 (trade surplus) Selling more goods and services to foreigners Than it is buying from them From net sale of goods and services Receives foreign currency Buy foreign assets Capital - flowing out of the country: NCO > 0 * International Flows of Goods & Capital Equality of net exports & net capital outflow When NX < 0 (trade deficit) Buying more goods and services from foreigners Than it is selling to them The net purchase of goods and services Needs financed Selling assets abroad Capital - flowing into the country: NCO < 0 * International Flows of Goods & Capital Saving, investment, & relationship to international flows Open economy: Y = C + I + G + NX National saving: S = Y ? C ? G Y ? C ? G = I + NX S = I + NX NX = NCO S = I + NCO Saving = Domestic investment + Net capital outflow * International Flows of Goods & Capital Trade surplus: Exports > Imports Net exports > 0; Y > Domestic spending (C+I+G) S > I and NCO > 0 Trade deficit: Exports < Imports Net exports < 0; Y < Domestic spending (C+I+G) S < I and NCO < 0 Balanced trade : Exports = Imports Net exports = 0; Y = Domestic spending (C+I+G) S = I and NCO = 0 * International flows of goods and capital: summary 1 * Trade deficit Balanced trade Trade surplus Exports < Imports Net Exports < 0 Y < C + I + G Saving < Investment Net Capital Outflow < 0 Exports = Imports Net Exports = 0 Y = C + I + G Saving = Investment Net Capital Outflow = 0 Exports > Imports Net Exports > 0 Y > C + I + G Saving > Investment Net Capital Outflow > 0 This table shows the three possible outcomes for an open economy. Past two decades Borrowed heavily in world financial markets To finance large trade deficits Before 1980, National saving & domestic investment - close Small net capital outflow After 1980 National saving - fell substantially below investment Net capital outflow - a large negative number Capital inflow U.S. - going into debt Is the U.S. trade deficit a national problem? * Changes in capital flows Arise from changes in saving Arise from changes in investment 1980 to 1987 Increase flow of capital Decline in national saving Decline public saving Increase in government budget deficit Is the U.S. trade deficit a national problem? * 1991 to 2000 Increase flow of capital Saving increased Budget surplus Investment increased 2000 to 2006 Increase in capital flow Investment boom ? abated Budget deficits National saving - fell to extraordinarily low levels Is the U.S. trade deficit a national problem? * National saving, domestic investment,& net capital outflow (a) 2 * Panel (a) shows national saving and domestic investment as a percentage of GDP. You can see from the figure that national saving has been lower since 1980 than it was before 1980. This fall in national saving has been reflected primarily in reduced net capital outflow rather than in reduced domestic investment. National saving, domestic investment,& net capital outflow (b) 2 * Panel (b) shows net capital outflow as a percentage of GDP. You can see from the figure that national saving has been lower since 1980 than it was before 1980. This fall in national saving has been reflected primarily in reduced net capital outflow rather than in reduced domestic investment. Prices for International Transactions Nominal exchange rate Rate at which a person can trade currency of one country for currency of another Appreciation (strengthen) Increase in the value of a currency Measured - amount of foreign currency it can buy Depreciation (weaken) Decrease in the value of a currency Measured - amount of foreign currency it can buy * Prices for International Transactions Real exchange rate Rate at which a person can trade goods and services of one country For goods and services of another Real exchange rate = (e ? P) / P* e ? nominal exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies P ? price index for U.S. basket P* - price index for foreign basket * Purchasing-Power Parity Purchasing-power parity Theory of exchange rates A unit of any given currency Should be able to buy the same quantity of goods in all countries The basic logic of purchasing-power parity Based on law of one price A good must sell for the same price in all locations * Purchasing-Power Parity The basic logic of purchasing-power parity Arbitrage Take advantage of price differences for the same item in different markets Parity Equality Purchasing-power Value of money in terms of quantity of goods it can buy * Purchasing-Power Parity Implications of purchasing-power parity If purchasing power of the dollar Is always the same at home and abroad Then the real exchange rate cannot change Theory of purchasing-power parity Nominal exchange rate between the currencies of two countries Must reflect the price levels in those countries * Natural experiment ? hyperinflation High inflation Arises when a government ? prints money to pay for large amounts of government spending German hyperinflation, early 1920s Money supply, price level, nominal exchange rate Move closely together Money supply - starts growing quickly Price level ? starts growing Depreciation The nominal exchange rate during a hyperinflation * German hyperinflation, early 1920s Money supply - stabilizes Price level ? stabilizes Exchange rate - stabilizes During every hyperinflation Fundamental link among Money supply, prices, and nominal exchange rate Quantity theory of money Explains how the money supply affects price level Purchasing power parity Explains how price level affects nominal exchange rate The nominal exchange rate during a hyperinflation * Money, prices, and the nominal exchange rate during the German hyperinflation 3 * This figure shows the money supply, the price level, and the exchange rate (measured as U.S. cents per mark) for the German hyperinflation from January 1921 to December 1924. Notice how similarly these three variables move. When the quantity of money started growing quickly, the price level followed, and the mark depreciated relative to the dollar. When the German central bank stabilized the money supply, the price level and exchange rate stabilized as well. Purchasing-Power Parity Limitations of purchasing-power parity Theory of purchasing-power parity Does not always hold in practice Many goods are not easily traded Even tradable goods are not always perfect substitutes When they are produced in different countries No opportunity for profitable arbitrage * Purchasing-Power Parity Limitations of purchasing-power parity Real exchange rates fluctuate over time Large & persistent movements in nominal exchange rates Typically reflect changes in price levels at home and abroad * Data on - basket of goods consisting of ?Two all-beef patties, special sauce, lettuce, cheese, pickles, onions, on a sesame seed bun? ?Big Mac? - sold by McDonald?s around the world July 2007, price of a Big Mac = $3.41 in U.S. According to purchasing power parity Cost of ?Big Mac? ? same in both countries Predicted exchange rate = Price in foreign country (in foreign currency) divided by price in U.S. The hamburger standard * Predicted and actual exchange rates Are not exactly the same Reasonable first approximation The hamburger standard * Country Price of Big Mac Predicted Exchange rate Actual Exchange rate Venezuela South Korea Japan Sweden Mexico Euro area Britain 7,400 bolivar 2,900 won 280 yen 33 kronor 28 pesos 3.06 euros 1.99 pounds 2,170 bolivar/$ 850 won/$ 82 yen/$ 10.1 kronor/$ 9.7 pesos/$ 0.90 euros/$ 0.58 pound/$ 2,147 bolivar/$ 923 won/$ 122 yen/$ 7.4 kronor/$ 6.8 pesos/$ 0.74 euros/$ 0.50 pound/$
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