Explosive events on the Sun's surface associated with complex sunspot groups and strong magnetic fields.
A measure of how effectively a material blocks the radiation going through it.
The apparent surface of the Sun as seen in visible light
A region in the interior of a star through which energy is transported outward by radiation
A lower-density region in the solar corona containing ''open'' magnetic field lines along which coronal material is free to stream into interplanetary space.
The period 1645 ? 1715, when there were few sunspots
The use of solar oscillations to study the interior of the Sun
The region in the Sun's atmosphere located between thephotosphereand thecorona
One of the ways in which hydrogen burning?the fusion of four hydrogen atoms to form a helium atom?can take place. This is the most important path for hydrogen burning in low-mass stars such as the Sun
The time, occurring about every 11 years, when the Sun is at its peak activity, meaning that sunspot activity and related phenomena (such as prominences, flares, and coronal mass ejections) are at their peak
An archlike projection above the solar photosphere often associated with a sunspot
An eruption on the Sun that ejects hot gas and energetic particles at much higher speeds than are typical in the solar wind
coronal mass ejection
A region within a star in which energy is transported outward by convection
The approximate 11-year cycle during which sunspot activity increases and then decreases. This is one-half of a full 22-year cycle in which the magnetic polarity of the Sun first reverses, then returns to its original configuration
A cooler, transitory region on the solar surface produced when loops of magnetic flux break through the surface of the Sun
The decay of a neutron into a proton by emission of an electron and an antineutrino, or the decay of a proton into a neutron by emission of a positron and a neutrino
The attractive short range force between protons and neutrons that holds atomic nuclei together; one of the four fundamental forces of nature, mediated by the exchange ofgluons
strong nuclear force
The transfer of energy in which the thermal energy of particles is transferred to adjacent particles by collisions or other interactions. The transport of energy by thermal conduction is most important in solids
The release of energy from the nuclear fusion of four hydrogen atoms into a single helium atom
Rotation of different parts of a system at different rates
An elementary particle of antimatter identical in mass but opposite in charge and all other properties to its corresponding ordinary matter particle
The darker appearance caused by increased atmospheric absorption near the limb of a planet or star
The gas and dust that fill the space between the stars within a galaxy
A positively charged subatomic particle; theantiparticleof the electron
The gravitationally bound, outer gaseous envelope surrounding a planet, moon, or star
The temperature at which a black body, such as a star, appears to radiate
The transport of energy from one location to another. In stars, energy transport is mostly carried out by radiation or convection
A very low-mass, electrically neutral particle emitted during beta decay
radiation carries energy from where to where?
Radiation carries energy from hotter regions to cooler regions
Opacity impedes what?
Opacity impedes the outward flow of radiation
what are Doppler Shifts used for?
Doppler Shifts areused to measure themotion of portions ofthe Sun toward us oraway from us.
These measurementscan detect velocitiessmaller than 1 m/s.
how long is the cycle that solar activity follows?
what causes the solar cycle?
The solar cycle is due to tangling of magnetic fields
True or False: neutrinos travel freely from the core of the Sun, as if the sun weren't there at all
The difference between the predicted and measured flux of solar neutrinos was referred to as:
the solar neutrino problem
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