Brainstem lesion characterized by cranial nerve impairments on the side ipsilateral to the lesion and hemiplegia and sensory loss on the opposite side.
Dorsal flexion of the great toe and fanning of other toes on being stroked on the sole of the foot. Indicating pyramidal tract (upper motor neuron) pathology in adults. Named after French neurologist Joseph Babinski.
fibers: Short axonal projections descending from the motor cortex and synapsing on the brainstem motor cranial nerve nuclei. This tract serves motor speech functions by innervating the musculature of the face, tongue, and jaws.
fibers: Long axonal projections fivers, also called pyramidal fibers, originating in the motor cortex and descending to terminate on spinal motor nuclei. This tract regulates the motor control of skeletal muscles.
Retraction of the testicle on stroking the skin of the inner thigh. Absence of this reflex indicates a pyramidal tract lesion (upper motor neuron)
Representation of the body in the sensorimotor cortex.
(somesthetic cortex or primary sensory cortex) Cortical region (Brodmann area 3,1,2) behind the central sulcus that integrates sensory inputs from the body and provides sensory awareness.
Primary motor cortex (Brodmann area 4), located rostral to the central sulcus.
Area located anterior to the motor cortex that programs and regulates skilled movements.
Crossing of motor fibers that takes place in the most caudal medulla and accounts for contralateral motor organization.
The motor fibers of the corticospinal tract named because of their location in the medullary pyramids.
Paralysis of one side of the body after a lesion in the pyramidal tract.
supplementary motor cortex
Midsagitally located extension of the premotor cortex, which is involved with bilateral aspects of motor pattern control and planning.
upper motor neurons
Cell bodies in the motor cortex and their descending axonal processes that synapse on the cranial and spinal motor neurons.
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