Chapter 14 Visual Summary Religious conflicts in Europe Religious conflicts between Protestants and Catholics were widespread. French kings persecuted Protestants Philip II of Spain was a great supporter of militant Catholicism. The Thirty Year’s War was triggered by religious and political conflicts. Political, economic, and social crises in Europe Civil War arose in England from power struggles between King Charles I and Parliament. English Protestant forces triumphed in the civil war and tried and executed King Charles I. Population growth, famine, and plague contributed to social tensions throughout Europe. The conflicts in seventeenth century Europe were reflected in art, literature, and political works. Absolutism as a response to crises Frederick William of Prussia used the General War Commissariat to maintain his power. The Austrian Monarchy tried but failed to achieve a centralized, absolutist state. The absolute rule of Louis XIV of France influenced monarchs throughout Europe. Russia emerged as a great power under the absolute rule of Peter the Great.