the branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others.
the process of forming impressions of others
widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group. ex] gender and ethnicity play a role in developing these
opinion formed based on the ethnicity of a person
opinion formed based on the occupation of an individual
occurs when people estimate that they have encountered more conformations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen; in other words, people not only see what they expect to see, they also tend to overestimate how often they see it.
a group that one belongs to and identifies with
a group that one does not belong to or identify with
inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others' behavior, and their own behavior *people make these because they have a strong need to understand their exepriences
ascribe the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings *personal factors
ascribe the causes of behavior to the situational demands and environmental constraints *environmental factors
Fundamental Attribution Error
refers to observers' bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others' behavior
person exhibiting the behavior
person observing the behavior of another
the tendency to attribute one's successes to personal factors and one's failures to situational factors *comes into play when people attempt to explain success and failure
involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships
involves putting group goals ahead of personal and defining one's identity in terms of the groups one belongs to ex] family, tribe, work group, social class, caste, etc.