The region of the United States west of the Mississippi River
Passed in 1862, it provided 160 acres of free land to any settler wiling to live on it and improve it for five years; promoted massive westward migration
A line spanning the continental United States. Congress helped the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads build it by providing land grants, cash incentives, and loans
Vast open territory stretching east to west from present-day Missouri to the Rocky Mountains, and north to south from North Dakota to Texas
More than 20 thousand ex-slaves who in 1879 left violence and poverty in the South to take up farming in Kansas. Named for the biblical exodus.
A religious sect founded in upstate New York in 1830. Driven by persecution they headed west in 1846 and settled in a valley in Utah near the Great Salt Lake
Originally founded in the fall of 1867 by Oliver H. Kelley as a social and educational society for farmers, it became a major political force in the Midwest in the mid-1870s
The annual cattle drives of more than 1,000 miles from Texas to the Great Plains that started in 1866 and established the ranching industry in the West
Sand Creek Massacre
A massacre of some two hundred Cheyenne Indians on November 29, 1864, in Colorado by a military outfit known as the Colorado Volunteers under Colonel John M. Chivington
Battle of Little Bighorn
Lt. Col. George A. Custer and the Seventh Cavalry are wiped out by a force of Cheyenne, Sioux, and Arapaho warriors on June 25, 1876; hardens white attitudes toward Native Americans
Dawes Severalty Act
1887 law that started the breakup of reservations by offering Native Americans allotments of 160 acres of reservation land to encourage them to become independent farmers. It undermined the tribe and forced assimilation.
Wounded Knee Massacre
U.S. soldiers open fire on a group of Sioux Indians on December 29, 1890, killing between two hundred and three hundred. Marked the last Indian resistance and came to symbolize the brutality associated with the conquest of the West.
"Buffalo Bill's Wild West"
A circus-like production begun in 1883 that helped create a romantic and mythological view of the West in the American imagination
Historian Frederick Jackson Turner's 1893 theory that extolled the positive role the frontier had played in shaping the American character and consequently American insitiutions
A new technique of farming was needed for the dry soil in the West. The seeds had to be planted deeper with the help of steel plows. When it would rain, the family would have to run out and make sure seeds got the water
Invented the reaper for cutting. Helped farming in the West be possible
Invented the tractor. Helped make farming in the West possible.
Responsible for barbed wire. It helped keep people off and animals in a person's farm.
First mail order company. Lasted for 120 years and used the railroad for mail and shipping.
Period of deflation
Everyone except farmers kept the same income while products became less expensive. More products=less expensive, less demand. Farmers kept their farm loans and couldn't pay them off with less money.
On April 22, 1889, the government handed out free land, but some people jumped the gun and took land before the government gave the go ahead.
People were coming into the U.S. from new places. Americans used the immigrants for labor because they would work for cheap. Chinese for railroad labor and domestics, Japanese as migrant farm workers, Europeans in factories or farms, etc.
Immigrants would work for cheaper wages while Americans looking for jobs couldn't get any better wages, so American wanted the Immigrants gone.
Chinese Exclusion Act
created in response to American's nativism.
First national park
Government set this land aside to be untouched and unused in the expansion of the West
John Muir & George Marsh
Part of the environmentalism and national parks movement in the West
Want to see the other 27 Flashcards in Chapter 15: The American West Transformed?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!