Powers or privileges guaranteed to individuals and protected from arbitrary removal at the hands of government or individuals.
First clause in the First Amendment, which forbids government establishment of religion.
The second clause in the First Amendment, which prevents the government from interfering with the exercise of religion.
A standard used by the Supreme court in deciding whether a law or policy is to be adjudged constitutional. To pass strict scrutiny, the low or policy must be justified by a "compelling governmental interest," must be narrowly tailored, and must be the least restrictive means for achieving that interest.
The press and speech clauses of the First Amendment.
Censorship before publication.
Clear and present danger test
A means by which the Supreme Court has distinguished between speech as the advocacy of ideas, which is protected by the First Amendment, and speech as incitement, which is not protected.
Speech that is not protected by the First Amendment because it inflicts injury or tends to incite an immediate dsiturbance of the peace.
People who assume roles of prominence in society or thrust themselves to the forefront of public controversy.
Bill of attainder
A law that pronounces an individual guilty of a crime without a trial.
Ex post facto laws
Laws that declare an action to be criminal after it has been performed.
Obligation of contracts
The obligation of the parties to a contract to carry out its terms.
Statements concerning rights that police are required to make to a person before he/she is subjected to in custody questioning.
The judicial rule that states that evidence obtained in the illegal search and seizure cannot be used in trial.
Good faith exception
An exception to the exclusionary rule, holding that evidence seized on the basis of a mistakenly issued search warrant can be introduced at trial if the mistake was made in good faith, that is, if all the the parties involved had reason at the time to believe the the warrant was proper.
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