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The world's most abundant fossil fuel is ________.
E) natural gas
Of the following energy sources, ________ is considered nonrenewable.
A) geothermal energy
B) wind energy
C) fossil fuel energy
D) tidal energy
E) sunlight (solar) energy
All of the following are fossil fuels except ________.
A) natural gas
B) tar sands
Solar radiation makes several other energy sources possible, including ________.
A) nuclear energy
B) geothermal energy
C) tidal energy
D) wind energy
E) hydrothermal energy
For the United States, the primary fuel that we use for our energy is ________.
E) natural gas
Scientists currently assessing the environmental impacts of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico report that ________.
A) the damage was limited to wildlife kills immediately after the spill
B) the entire Gulf food web will eventually collapse
C) the coastal marshes of Louisiana suffered no measurable damage
D) Gulf productivity has already returned to normal and no further effects will be feltE) it may take years or decades before the full impacts are known
Of the following, ________ is not a form of renewable energy.
Secondary extraction of petroleum ________.
A) causes less environmental damage than tertiary extraction
B) allows the oil to be extracted to the last drop
C) occurs immediately after primary extraction
D) is less expensive than primary extraction
E) uses solvents, water, or steam
Coal continues to be the main fuel used to generate electricity in the United States. This is partially because ________.
A) the quality of coal in the United States is very consistent from deposit to deposit
B) coal causes almost no air pollution when burned
C) compared to natural gas and oil, coal contains very few impurities, such as sulfur
D) coal deposits in the United States lie very close to the surface and are easily extracted
E) the country has such large reserves of coal
Crude oil is ________.
A) formed less than 100 yards below the surface; in deeper places with more pressure, coal is formed
B) usable in its raw form
C) fractionated to separate the chemicals used for gasoline, lubricants, plastics and other products
D) composed of less than ten different hydrocarbon molecules
E) formed in a wide range of temperature and pressure circumstances
Natural gas ________.
A) will be depleted by 2030 at current usage rates
B) produces less greenhouse gases per energy unit than coal or oil
C) is transported primarily by truck and rail
D) has octane as its primary component
E) was discovered by Bunsen in 1885
Deposits of natural gas are most numerous in ________.
A) Spain and Portugal
B) South America
D) the Middle East
E) the Middle East and Russia
Natural gas is ________.
A) trapped over some cities for commercial use
B) often associated with coal and petroleum deposits
C) only produced by bacteria during decomposition
D) more damaging to the environment than coal when extracted
E) still much more expensive than other fossil fuels
U.S. domestic oil production peaked in the year ________.
One of the problems with finding new fossil fuel deposits in developing countries is that ________.
A) their governments seldom allow extraction of the deposit without meeting expensive environmental regulations
B) it is very expensive to transport the deposit elsewhere
C) those countries tend to keep the resource for themselves, not sharing with other countries
D) their governments seldom allow extraction of the deposit without imposing huge taxes to fund new social benefits for the country
E) international companies move in to harvest the new deposit, and very little money or resource remains in the country
Of the available policy options regarding eventual conversion to renewable energy sources, environmentalists would probably prefer that ________.
A) we plan for the switch to renewable energy sources, but not implement any plans until all fossil fuels have been depleted
B) we pass laws immediately banning the exploration and development of further fossil fuel resources
C) we encourage, with subsidies, tax rebates, and grants, the rapid development and widespread use of renewable alternative energy resources
D) we prepare for a gradual changeover by slowly increasing funding and putting alternative energy resources into place over the next 100 years
E) we pass laws immediately banning the use of fossil fuels
The oil spill resulting from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster ________.
A) is the worst oil spill in U.S. history, causing damage to marine and coastal ecosystems
B) is considered a minor incident compared to other oil spills
C) eclipsed all non-point oil spills by 500%
D) resulted in a permanent ban on all offshore drilling in U.S. coastal waters
E) was quickly cleaned up preventing loss of wildlife and damage to fisheries
Efficiency of coal-fired power plants can be nearly doubled by ________.
A) switching to oil
B) using household wastes along with the coal
C) using coal with higher sulfur content
D) adding wood chips to the coal
Energy conservation in the United States ________.
A) is unlikely to ever occur
B) will be a reality only if there is another major war
C) can be accomplished by changes in tax laws
D) can be improved as individuals make conscious choices to reduce personal consumption
E) can be accomplished only through changes in environmental laws
Energy can be conserved by ________.
A) replacing compact florescent with tungsten bulbs
B) repealing the Law of Entropy
C) cogeneration in power plants, fuel efficient transportation, reengineered appliances
D) replacing mass transit with more and larger roads for cars and trucks
E) cogeneration in automobiles, especially in SUVs
The energy bill passed by the U.S. Congress in 2007 ________.
A) mandates the rapid development of all remaining fossil fuel resources as quickly as possible
B) will, according to analysts, allow us to import only 25% of our oil instead of 60%
C) primarily focused on taxing polluters and those who profit from the fossil fuel industry
D) raised the CAFE standard to 35mpg for vehicles by the year 2020
E) primarily focused on major new policies for conservation and for development of renewable energy sources
Many developed nations have their economies closely tied to imported fossil fuels. One important consideration is that ________.
A) if energy conservation is put into place, the cost of fossil fuels will decrease
B) if energy conservation is put into place, the cost of fossil fuels will increase
C) the economy can be disrupted by the decisions made in fuel exporting nations
D) the economy will only improve if the price of fossil fuels increasesE) as supplies decrease, fossil fuels decline in price
When we burn fossil fuels, ________.
A) the greatest environmental impact is the impact on the ozone layer
B) the resulting carbonic acid leads to acid rain
C) we liberate carbon back into the carbon cycle, increasing the amount available for plant growth
D) the greatest environmental impact is the local damage from extraction
E) the greatest environmental impact is increased greenhouse gases
The average miles per gallon rating of U.S. vehicles has ________.
A) doubled in the past two decades
B) made no improvement the past two decades
C) now matched the 45 mpg rating mandated by the European union
D) doubled since the 2008 election
E) been raised to 40 mpg because of the 2010 energy bill passed by Congress
The practice of reducing wasteful or unnecessary energy use is called ________.
A) technology reduction
B) energy switching
C) energy efficiency
D) energy conservation
Organizations like OPEC have formed ________.
A) in order to take maximum advantage of developed nations dependence on imported oil
B) as a military alliance to protect developed nations' energy reserves
C) to ensure that developing nations get their fair share of fossil fuels
D) to protect their national members' petroleum reserves for their own useE) to develop technologies to conserve non-renewable energy resources
U.S. oil production ________.
A) is now high enough for us to export nearly 50%
B) has to fit the quotas imposed by OPEC
C) is sufficient to meet national needs thanks to major conservation efforts
D) falls far short of U.S. oil consumption
E) will peak out in 2100, requiring for the first time imports to meet growing demand
falls far short of U.S. oil consumption
Carbon sequestration ________.
A) involves capturing carbon emissions and then releasing them into the stratosphere
B) permanently removes captured carbon from the environment
C) has proved to be more dangerous to the environment than releasing carbon emissions
D) is an unproven technology only begun in 2008E) has been used by U.S. electrical plants since 1955, converting carbon dioxide to limestone
________ is NOT a part of the technology of "clean coal."
A) Removing carbon content from coal before combustion
B) Capturing and sequestering carbon emissions
C) Converting coal to syngas (natural gas)
D) Injecting captured carbon dioxide into rock formations deep underground
E) Removing sulfur oxides from the emissions
When assessing energy resources, it is helpful to use a measure called EROI, which is ________.
A) money invested in extraction and processing minus money in sales
B) amount of energy invested minus heat released into the environment
C) energy returned plus energy invested
D) energy returned divided by energy investedE) energy returned minus energy invested
First developed in the ________, nuclear power showed the most growth during the ________.
A) 1950s; 1970s and 1980s
B) 1960s; 1990s
C) 1980s; 1990s
D) 1940s; 1950s
E) 1930s; 1950s
Nuclear energy in power plants is created via ________.
A) extraction of energy from the nucleus of cells
B) bombarding radioactive elements with electrons
C) fissioning uranium atoms by bombarding them with neutrons
D) fusion of electrons
E) ionic transformation of atoms
When uranium-235 atoms undergo fission, ________ is/are produced.
A) larger atoms such as plutonium
B) large amounts of CO2
C) moderators and water
D) smaller atoms (fission fragments), free neutrons and energy
E) large amounts of energy as all mass has been converted and lost
Which of the following characterizes U.S. nuclear power plants?
A) account for nearly half of domestic energy production
B) widely trusted and accepted by the public
C) highly subsidized
D) inexpensive to operateE) largely unregulated
Nuclear power plants ________.
A) supply most of U.S. electricity
B) produce more greenhouse gas emissions than burning fossil fuels
C) were first developed commercially in the early 1990s
D) are illegal in France and Lithuania
E) experienced the most growth during the 1970s and 1980s
All of the following are advantages of nuclear power except ________.
A) nuclear power plants generate no nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide
B) uranium mines cause less environmental damage than coal mines because less uranium is needed to generate power
C) the power-generating process is emission-free
D) uranium generates far greater amounts of energy than coal by weight or volume
E) safe disposal of nuclear wastes
Effects attributed to Chernobyl ________.
A) serious respiratory illnesses but no fatalities
B) were contained within the Ukraine
C) increased incidence of thyroid cancers
D) have not been extensively documentedE) increased incidence of emphysema
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