Location on the body at which a pathogen or parasite can enter especially to cause disease.
Movement directly through the skin or mucous membrane via either intentional or accidental breaks.
Number of units of infectious agents that individual organisms must be exposed to such that on average half will become infected.
Attachment of microorganisms to tissues, especially intentionally on the part of the microorganism.
Surface-associated conglomerations of microbial cell that are encased to greater or lesser extents within extracellular polymeric substances.
Layer of extracellular polymer that is firmly attached in some abundance to the surface of certain bacterial species.
Streptococcus pyogenes-associated molecule involved in adherence to epithelial cells as well resistance to phagocytosis.
Protein projections from the surface of bacteria used for attachment to other surfaces; hundreds can be found on a single bacterium.
Enzyme that converts prothrombin to thrombin, a process normally seen only in the course of blood clotting.
Potential for microorganisms to change the proteins and carbohydrates that they produce so as to avoid host immune systems.
Soluble, extracellular protein employed by bacteria to scavenge iron from their environment.
Poisonous materials intentionally or inadvertently released into the extracellular environment.
Measure of especially a microorganism's potential or ability to produce poisonous substances.
Substance produced by bacteria which in a soluble form – that is, separated from the bacterial cell that produces it – causes specific and often severe damaging impacts on especially eukaryotic cells and organisms.
Immunoglobulins capable of inactivating especially soluble bacterial virulence factors, e.g., as these immunoglobulins may be administered to treat disease.
Exotoxin capable of breaking open red blood cells.
Proteins that serve as non-specific activators of T cells, wreaking havoc on animal immune functions.
Lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that the body uses as one means of detecting and then reacting to bacterial infections.
Substance that anchors LPS in the Gram-negative outer membrane and which is detected in bodies as endotoxin.
Effectively a body-wide inflammatory response that occurs in response especially to substantial endotoxin access to the blood.
Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) Assay
Horseshoe crab-based assay for endotoxin presence.
Modification of host phenotype through prophage gene expression.
Portal of Exit
Location on the body from which a pathogen or parasite can leave especially towards transmission to new hosts to infect.
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