Chapter 15 - The Ferment of Reform and Culture I. Reviving Religion Church attendance was regular in 1850 (3/4 of population attended) Many relied on Deism (reason rather revelation); Deism rejected original sin of man, denied Christ?s divinity but believed in a supreme being that created universe with an order, similar to a clockmaker. Unitarian faith begins (New England) believed God existed in only 1 person, not in the orthodox trinity; stressed goodness of human nature believed in free will and salvation through good works; pictured God as a loving father appealed to intellectuals with rationalism and optimism These perversions of Christianity ignited Christians to ?take back their faith? and oppose these new beliefs Liberalism in religion started in 1800 spawned the 2nd Great Awakening a tidal wave of spiritual fervor that resulted in prison reform, church reform, temperance movement (no alcohol), women?s rights movement, abolition of slavery in 1830s it spread to the masses through huge ?camp meetings? the East went to the West to Christianize Indians Methodists and Baptists stressed personal conversion, democracy in church affairs, emotionalism Peter Cartwright ? was best known of the ?circuit riders? or traveling preachers Charles Grandison Finney ? the greatest revival preacher who led massive revivals in Rochester, NY II. Denominational Diversity The revival furthered fragmentation of religious faiths New York, with its Puritans, preached ?hellfire? and was known as the ?Burned-Over District? Millerites (Adventists) ? predicted Christ to return to earth on Oct 22, 1844. When this prophesy failed to materialize, the movement lost credibility. The Awakening widened lines between classes the region (like 1st Great Awakening) conservatives were made up of: propertied Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Unitarians the less-learned of the South the West (frontier areas) were usually Methodists or Baptists Religion further split with the issue of slavery (i.e. the Methodists and Presbyterians split) III. A Desert Zion in Utah Joseph Smith (1830) claimed to have found golden tablets in NY with the Book of Mormon inscribed on them. He came up with Mormon or Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints antagonism toward Mormons emerged due to their polygamy, drilling militia, and voting as a unit Smith was killed, but was succeeded by Brigham Young, who led followers to Utah they grew quickly by birth and immigration from Europe they had a federal governor and marched to Utah when Young became governor the issue of polygamy prevented Utah?s entrance to U.S. until 1896 IV. Free School for a Free People The idea of tax-supported, compulsory (mandatory), primary schools was opposed as a hand-out to paupers Gradually, support rose because uneducated ?brats? might grow up to be rabbles with voting rights Free public education, triumphed in 1828 along with the voting power in the Jackson election there were largely ill-taught and ill-trained teachers, however Horace Mann fought for better schools and is the ?Father of Public Education? school was too expensive for many community; blacks were mostly left out from education Important educators - Noah Webster (dictionary and Blueback Speller); William H. McGuffey ? McGuffey?s Readers) V. Higher Goals for Higher Learning The 2nd Great Awakening led to the building of small schools in the South the West (mainly for pride) the curriculum focused mainly on Latin, Greek, Math, moral philosophy The 1st state-supported university was founded in the Tar Heel state, the Univ. of North Carolina, in 1795; Jefferson started the University of Virginia shortly afterwards (UVA was to be independent of religion or politics) women were thought to be corrupted if too educated and were therefore excluded Emma Willard ? established Troy Female Seminary (1821) and Mount Holyoke Seminary (1837) was established by Mary Lyon Libraries, public lectures, and magazines flourished VI. An Age of Reform reformers opposed tobacco, alcohol, profanity, and many other vices, and came out for women?s rights women were very important in motivating these reform movements reformers were often optimists who sought a perfect society some were na´ve and ignored the problems of factories they fought for no imprisonment for debt (the poor were sometimes locked in jail for less than $1 debt); this was gradually abolished reformers wanted criminal codes softened and reformatories created the mentally insane were treated badly. Dorothea Dix fought for reform of the mentally insane in her classic petition of 1843 there was agitation for peace (i.e. the American Peace Society) - William Ladd had some impact until Civil War and Crimean war
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