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responsible for the production of gametes, the cells that combine to form a new individual of the species.
cell division. Duplication division. Each of the cells that exit mitosis have the same complement of 46 chromosomes (23 pairs). Like a copier making copies.
RBC’s have no nucleus so they have no chromosomes. The liver has cells called hepatocytes and typically have more than 3 copies of each chromosome giving them 69 or more chromosomes.
tightly coiled duct lying just outside each teste.
ductus deferens. Sperm may be stored for a while here.
each has a duct that joins with a vas deferens.
is a single, donut shaped gland that surrounds the upper portion of the urethra just below the bladder.
pea sized organs that lie posterior to the prostate on either side of the urethra. (AKA Cowper glands)-
production of sperm
the male sex hormones, the androgens, are secreted by cells that lie between the seminiferous tubules.
has ultimate control of the testes’ sexual function b/c it secretes a hormone called gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH.
the production of sperm in the seminiferous tubules.
main sex hormone in males.
female gonads. Lies in shallow depression, one on each side of the upper pelvic cavity. Produce eggs, or Ova and the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone.
uterine tubes. Fallopian tubes. Extend from the uterus to the ovaries. They are not attached to the ovaries.
thick-walled, muscular organ about the size and shape on an inverted pear. Uterine tubes join the uterus at its upper end.
at the lower end of the uterus. It enters the vagina nearly at a right angle.
-tube that lies at a 45 degree angle to the small of the back.
external genital organs of the female. Includes two large hair-covered folds of skin called the labia majora.
organ of sexual arousal in females. Becomes engorged with blood during sexual stimulation.
contains an immature egg called a oocyte. Ovary has many of these.
process of when the vesicular follicle bursts releasing the oocyte (egg) surrounded by a clear membrane.
LH promotes the development of the corpus luteum. The corups luteum secretes high levels of progesterone and some estrogen. When pregnancy does not occur, the corups luteum regresses and a new cycle begins with menstruation.
when the ovarian cycle stops. A woman is not considered to have completed menopause until menstruation has stopped for a year. As long as a woman is menstruating, she can become pregnant.
female sex hormones with many functions.
uterus undergoes a cyclical series of events
days 1-5 of the uterine cycle.
sustains the developing embryo and later the fetus, originates from both maternal and fetal tissues.
human chorionic gonadotropin- placenta produces this. It maintains the corpus luteum in the ovary.
is the presence of uterine tissue outside the uterus.
structures that assist in the transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next. The instructions within each chromosome are contained within genes, which in turn are composed of DNA
Which chromosome has the SRY gene that causes testes to develop
The Y chromosome has the SRY gene that causes testes to develop
ensures every cell (except liver cells and red blood cells) have 46 chromosomes.
body cells, the chromosomes occur in pairs. In a karyotype, the pairs have been numbered and arranged by size from largest to smallest. These chromosomes are duplicated, and each one is composed of two sister chromatids.
two identical parts of a chromosome. Contains the same genes.
has the function of holding the chromatids together until a certain phase of mitosis when the Centromere splits. Holds chromatids together. Once separated each sister chromatid is a chromosome. In this way a duplicated chromosome gives rise to two individual daughter chromosomes. When DC separate, the new cell gets one of each type and, therefore, a full complement of chromosomes.
most of the cell cycle is spent here. This is the time when the organelles within the cell carryo n their usually functions. As the cell continues through interphase, it gets ready to divide. The cell growns lerger, the number of organelles doubles, and the amount of chromatin doubles as DNA replication occurs.
The G1 stage occurs before DNA synthesis; the S stage include DNA replication; and the G2 stage occurs after DNA replication.
The cell returns to normal size and resumes its function within the body. A cell doubles its organelles (mitochondira, ribosomes, etc) and it accumulates the materials needed for DNA synthesis cell cycle main checkpoint. If DNA is damaged, apoptosis will occur. Otherwise, the cell is committed to divide when growth signals are present and nutrients are available.
A copy is made of all DNA in the cell. DNA replication occurs so each chromosome consists of two identical DNA double helix molecules. These molecules occur in the strands called sister chromatids.
The cell synthesizes the proteins needed for cell division, such as the protein found in microtubules.
M (for “mitotic”) stage and cytokinesis.
- is a type of nuclear division. Often referred to as duplication division b/c each new nucleus contains the same number and type of chromosomes as the former cell.
is the division of the cytoplasm.
- programmed cell death. Occurs when cells are no longer needed or have become excessively damaged.
in unrestricted cell growth, or cancer.
if the cell cycle passes this checkpoint, the cell is committed to divide. If the cell does not pass this checkpoint, it can enter a holding phase called G0, during which it performs its normal functions does not divide.
- Mitosis checkpoint. Mitosis will occur if DNA has replicated properly. Apoptosis will occur if the DNA is damaged and cannot be repaired.
Spindle assembly checkpoint. Mitosis will not continue if chromosomes are not properly aligned.
microtubule organizing center of the cell. Duplicates during mitosis.
when the centrosomes duplicate they separate and form the poles of this, where they assemble the microtubules that make up the spindle fibers.
One stage flows from the other with no interruption.
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase.
Chromosomes are visible and randomly placed through the nucleus.
characterized by a fully formed spindle. The chromosomes, each with two sister chromatids, are aligned at the equator.
centromeres holding the sister chromatids together divide. Characterized by the 2n (diploid) number of chromosomes moving toward each pole. Spindle fibers cause the movement of the chromosomes.
begins when the chromosomes arrive at the poles. Characterized by the presence of two daughter nuclei.
Meiosis I and Meiosis II.
when the homologous chromosomes come together and line up side by side. The result is a an association of four chromatids that stay in close proximity during the first two phases of meiosis I. This is significant b/c its occurrence leads to a reduction of the chromosome number.
take place after synapsis when an exchange of genetic material occurs between the non sister chromatids of the homologous pair. It occurs during Prophase I of Meiosis. Crossing over is significant because the members of a homologous pair can carry slightly different instructions for the same genetic trait. It causes the off-spring to receive a different combination of instructions than the mother or father received.
production of eggs
is the failure of the homologous chromosomes, or daughter chromosomes to separate correctly during meiosis I and II.
one type of chromosome is present in three copies. This happens when one normal sperm fertilizes an egg with 24 chromosomes. Trisomy is usually fatal. Only trisomy 21 (down syndrome) has a reasonable chance of survival after birth.
if an egg with 22 chromosomes is fertilized by a normal sperm. One type of chromosome is present in a single copy. Monosomy of all but the X chromosome is fatal.
- In normal XX females, one of the X chromosomes becomes a darkly staining mass of chromatin. An inactive X chromosome
causes an increased levels of purines in the blood, a finding associated with problems in intellectual development.
-(XO) Is a female. Has only one sex chromosome, an X. short with a broad chest and folds of skin on the back of the neck. The ovaries, uterine tubes and uterus are very small and underdeveloped. These females do not undergo puberty or menstruation and their breasts never develop.
- (XXY) males. Speech and language delays. )Only 650 males have been born with two X chromosomes. Require assisted reproduction to father a child.
XYY males can only result from nondisjunction during spermatogensis. Taller than average. Persistent acne, tend to have speech and reading problems.
Radiation, certain organic chemicals, or even viruses are all environmental agents that cause a chromosome to do what?
presence of a chromosomal segment more than once in the same chromosome.
has occurred when a segment of a chromosome is turned around 180 degrees.
is the movement of a chromosome segment from one chromosome to another nonhomologous chromosome.
deletion syndrome. Occurs when chromo 7 loses a tiny end piece. The gene that governs the protein elastin is missing. This causes their skin to age prematurely. Tends to have poor academic skill, excellent verbal and musical skills.
Deletion syndrome. Is seen when chromo 5 is missing an end piece. Small head, intellectually disabled, and has facial abnormalities. Infants cry resembles that of a cat eb/c of the abnormal development of the larynx and glottis.
a person who has both of the chromosome’s involved in a translocation has the normal amount of genetic material and is healthy, unless the chromo exchange broke an allele into two pieces.
translocation syndrome- a translocation btwn chromo 2 and 20. Abnormalities of the eyes and internal organs.
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