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The Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View
when do psychologists label behavior as "disordered"
when it is deviant, distressful, and DYSFUNCTIONAL
deviant varies with context, culture, and time
medical model- view on psychological disorder
mental illness can be diagnosed based on sypmtoms and cured through therapy
(ie- psychiatric hospitals)
biopsychosocial model- view on psychological disorder
mind and body are indseperable
behavior arises from interaction of nature and nurture (environment)
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition)
widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
goals and content of DSM-IV
currently describes 400 disorders
the manual defines a structured interview technique that clinicians can use to reach a diagnosis
they answer objective questions posed at 5 levels about individuals behavior
reliability high and coordinates with international classification of diseases
pros and cons of DSM-IV
diagnostic labels turns peoples interpretations and perceptions of behaviors bias
affects how people react to labelled person
helps professionals communicate with one another
psychological disorder characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
in which a person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread
in which a person feels irrationally and intensely afraid of a specific object or situation
anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
post-traumatic stress disorder
produced by traumatic stress: uncontrollable events with a sense of fear helplessness or horror
characterized by lingering symptoms
conditions in which conscious awareness seems to become separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
characterized by emotional extremes
1. major depressive disorder- person experiences prolonged hopelessness
2. bipolar disorder- alternates between depression and mania
major depressive disorders
a mood disorder in which a person experiences two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activites
biological perspective of mood disorders
genetic influences studied through linkage and association studies
study abnormalities in brain structure and function (neurotransmitter systems)
depression runs in some families. norpinephrine and seretonin low during depression. activity in frontal lobe slow during depression.
social cognitive perspective of mood disorders
draws attention to power of self defeating beliefs and negative explanatory styles
cycle of depresion: negative stressful event, interpreted pessimistic explanatory style, hopless depressed state, hampers actions and thoughts
dissociative identity disorder
multiple personality disorder
two or more distinct identities that alternately control the persons behavior with memory impairment across the different personality states
schizophrenia and its symptoms
a group of sever disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
subtypes of schizophrenia
paranoid- preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations
disorganized- disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or innapropriate emotion
catatonic- immobility (or excessive), extreme negativism, parrotlike
undifferentiated- many and varried symptoms
residual- withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared
schizophrenia explanation: brain abnormalities
increased receptors for the neurotransmitter dopamine
enlarged, fluid filled cerebral cavities and corresponding decreases in the cortex
abnormal activity in frontal lobes, thalamus and amygdala
schizophrenia explanation: genetic factors
genetics not sole cause
1 in 2 chances in identical twins
adoption studies- greater chance if biological parent was schizophrenic
schizophrenia explanation: psycological factors
no environmental event can trigger schizophrenia
some early warning signs: mother with long lasting severe schizophrenia, seperation from parents, birth complication etc.
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
antisocial personality disorder
(sociopath or psychopath)
lpersonality disorder in which the person exhibits lack of conscience (becomes plain before age 15, usually male) for wrongdoing, even towards friends and family
reduction in activity in frontal lobes and an area of the cortex that helps control impulses
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