Self regulated, the cell releases the hormone and has the receptor that the hormone binds to.
The cell releases a hormone that effects other tissues
chemicals released into the blood, can target far away organs and tissues
produced by neurons and act like hormones, norepinephrine and oxytocin.
Acetylecholine, produced by neurons and effect cholinergic receptors
Chemicals secreted into the environment
Maintains a relatively constant ceoncetnration of hormone in the system (Thyroid hormone)
Hormone is regulated in response to stress (Epinephrine)
Hormone peaks then diminishes (Menstrual Cycle)
A. Produced in small quantities
B. Secreted into intercellular space
C. Transported in the circulatory system
D. Act on target tissues elsewhere in the body
E. Commonly referred to as ligands
can only bind to surface receptors and used G-protein complexes that trigger other intracellular proteins eventually leading up to a cellular response
Bind to intercellular receptors; they need to be bound to a carrier protein to travel through the blood. They move through the cellular membrane and bind to receptors. These complexes then bind to the DNA and express genes leading to new proteins.
Blood glucose levels to low or to high. Blood calcium levels are too low or too high. This situation sends a stimulus to the hypothalamus starting the endocrine system.
Neurons send neurotransmitters to the endocrine cells either stimulating or inhibiting the endocrine gland
Negative Feedback Loop
Trend hormone levels toward the set point.
Positive Feedback loop
trend hormone levels away from the set point.
is the decrease in the number of receptors for a given hormone (ligand)
is the increase in the number of receptors
Nine hormone secreted by the Anterior Pituitary Gland
1. Growth Hormone
2. TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)
5. Beta Endorphins
6. MSH (Melanocyte-stimulating hormone)
7. LH (Luteinizing hormone)
8. FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone)
Two hormones secreted by the Posterior Pituitary Gland
1. ADH (Antidiuretic hormone)
Hormones of the Hypothalamus
1. GHRH (Growth hormone-releasing hormone)
2. GHIH (Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone)
3. TRH (Thyrotropin-releasing hormone)
4. CRH (Corticotropin-releasing hormone)
5. GnRH (Gonadotropin-releasing hormone)
6. PRH (Prolactin-releasing hormone)
7. PIH (Prolactin-inhibiting hormone)
All go to the Anterior Pituitary gland
A stimulus trigger the hypothalamus to release a hormone that
1. Stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete a hormone that
2. Stimulates another gland of the endocrine system to release a hormone that
3. Stimulates either another gland or an organ of the body that finally results in
4. A cellular response
1. T3 (Triidothyronine)- lipid soluble
2. T4 (Tetraiodothyronine)- lipid soluble
T4 is converted in the target cell to T3 before it binds to the intracellular receptor
TBG Thyroxine-binding globulin
moves T4 through the blood
PTH (Parathyroid Hormone)- water soluble, regulates calcium levels in the blood.
Net Filtration Pressure- is the force responsible for moving fluid across capillary walls. Is the difference between net hydrostatic pressure and net osmatic pressure
Interstitial Fluid Pressure-the pressure between the blood and the interstitail fluid. The pressure of interstitial fluid within the tissue spaces, keeps blood in the capillaries.
Net Hydrostatic Pressure-the difference between the blood and interstitial fluid. BP-IFP=NHP
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