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What are the five special senses
what are the two layers of the olfactory organs? briefly describe
1. epithelium (contains olfactory sensory neurons, supporting cells, & regenerative basal epithelial cells)
2. lamina propria ( consist of areola tissue, blood vessels, and nerves.
what cell types are found in the olfactory epithelium?
1. sensory neuron
2. supporting cells
3. regenerative basal epithelial cells
what do olfactory glands secrete? Why is this substance is important for olfaction?
They secrete thick pigmented mucus.
What is a generator potential?
When the odorant binds to a g protein-coupled receptor in the plasma membrane of an olfactory dendrite.
*creates a depolarization.
Afferent fibers leaves the olfactory epithelium that collect into 20 more bundles. these bundles penetrate the cribriform plate of ethnic bone to reach the olfactory bulbs of the cerebrum. *Refer to notes
What are the 3 steps that occur when an operant binds to a receptor in membrane of olfactory sensory neuron. #1
1. binding of operant to its receptor protein leads to activation of adequate cyclase, the enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP (cAMP)
What are the 3 steps that occur when an operant binds to a receptor in membrane of olfactory sensory neuron. #2
The cAMP opens sodium ion channels in the plasma membrane, which then begins to depolarize.
What are the 3 steps that occur when an operant binds to a receptor in membrane of olfactory sensory neuron. #3
if sufficient to polarization occurs in action potential is triggered in the eckstine and the information is related to the CNS
What is Olfactory Discrimination?
Human olfactory organs can discriminate among many smells, but sensitivity varies widely, depending on nature of the odorant.
Where are taste buds located? what cells make up taste bud?
On the surface of the tongue cells that make up taste buds are called gustatory epithelial cells.
What are 4 types of papillae on the tongue?
2. Fungi form
what are the four primary taste sensations? what are two additional taste sensations?
Extra 2: Umami, Water Receptors
Why is there a synaptic delay with gustation?
Gustatory receptors have a separate receptor cell and sensory neuron.
What taste uses a sodium ion leak channel? What taste receptors are gustducins?
The taste used for sodium ion leak channel is Salt and Sour
For sweet, bitter, and umami is Gustducins
What are the Accessory structure of the eye?
2. Superficial epithelium of the eye
3. Structures involved with the production, secretion, & removal of tears.
What structures are included in the lacrimal apparatus?
1. Lacrimal Gland
2. Lacrimal Caniliculi
3. Lacrimal Sac
4. Nasolacrimal duct
What enzyme found in tears is Antibacterial?
Name 3 layers of the Eye from superficial to deep.
What structure divides the eyeball into the anterior and posterior cavities?
What structures are associated with the fibrous layer of the eyeball?
If both the sclera and cornea are composed of collagen fibers, why is the cornea transparent and the sclera white?
The network of small vessels interior to the bulgar conjunctiva generally doesnt carry enough blood to lend an obvious color to the sclera.
What are the functions of the vascular layer?
1. Provides a route for blood vessels
2. Regulates the amount of light that enters the eye
3. Secretes and reabsorbed the aqueous humor that circulates within the chambers of the eye
4. controls shape of the lens, and focusing process.
Why does the iris of the eye have color?
our genes influence the density and distribution of melanocytes in the iris as well as the density of the pigmented epithelium
what are the purposes of the dilator pupillae inspector people a muscles
the autonomic nervous system controls both muscle groups. in response to dim light sympathetic activation causes the pupils to dilate in response to Bright Light
Describe structures of the ciliary body
Ciliary muscle: a ring of smooth muscle that protects into the interior of the eye
Ciliary processes: numerous folds
Ciliary Zonule: ring of fibers that attach lens to the ciliary processes
What is the choroid?
a Vascilar layerthat separates the fibrous layer and the inner ayer posterior the ora serrata
What are 2 layers of the retina?
1. Pigmented layer
2. Neural layer
What are 2 types of photo Receptors?
*refer to book
Blind Spot (Optic Disc)
Where the optic nerve leaves the eye; there are no photoreceptor cells here.
What four cell types are found in the neural layer?
1. Bipolar Cells
2. Ganglion Cells
3. Horizontal Cells
4. Amacrine Cells
describe the function of horizontal and amacrine cells?
Horizontal and amacrinw cells can facilitate or inhibit communication between photoreceptors and ganglion cells altering sensitivity of the retina.
what determines intraocular pressure
by explanation tonometry whereby a small, flat disk is placed on the anesthetized cornea to measure the tension
Describe structure of lens
Transparent, Bi-Convex(curving) flexible disc that lies posterior to the cornea and is held in place by the ciliary zonule.
primary function of lens is to focus the visual image on the photoreceptors. the lens does so by changing shape
process of accomadation
The lens becomes rounder to focus the image of a nearby object onto he retina.
What is found in visual pigment?
What vitamin is needed to synthesize retinal?
Rhodopsin or Visual Purple
what are the three colors of cones?
what are the steps of photoreception
1. Opsin Activation Occurs
2. Opsin activated transduction, which in turn activates phosphodiesterase (PDE)
3. Cyclic GMP levels decline and chemically gated ion channels close
4. Dark current is reduced and rate of NT release declines.
What happens with bleaching?
Rhodopsin is broken apart into retinal and opsin.
what is the difference between M cells and P cells?
M cells R large, provide infoabout the general form of an object motion and shadows and dim lighting.
P cells smaller and more numerous than M cells P cells are active in bright light and they provide information about edges fine detail and color
difference between on Center and off-center neurons
On Center: excited by light arriving in the center of their receptive field and are inhibited when light strikes its edges
Off Center: are inhibited by light in the central zone but are stimulated by light at the edges
Field Of Vision
When looking straight ahead the visual images from your left and right eye overlap
ability to judge or distance by interpreting the three dimensional relationships among objects in view.
what are the three divisions of the ear?
What structures make up the external ear?
1. Elastic Cartilage
3. External Acoustic Meatus
What structures make up the Middle Ear?
1. Auditory Ossicles
2. Oval Window
3. Tympanic Cavity
4. Tympanic Membrane
what are the two labyrinths in the internal ear?
1. Bony Labyrinths
2. Membranous Labyrinths
How are bony and membranous labyrinth related?
the walls of the Bony Labyrinth are continuous with the surrounding temporal bone the inner Contours of the Bony Labyrinth are closely followed by The Contours of membranous Labyrinth The receptors of the internal ear are found within these tubes
where do you find perilympth and endolympth?
between the bony and mem labyrynths
what are the three divisions of the Bony Labyrinth
2. semicircular ducts
3. vestibular complex
what are the functions of the round and oval windows
the round window is a thin membranous partition that separates the perilymph of the cochlear Chambers from the air-filled middle ear
collagen fibers connecting the Bony margins of the opening known as the oval window
The state of physical balance
what two structures of the inner ear provide sensations of the equilibrium
1. Vestibular complex
2. Hair cells
hair cells possess two different types of cilia
what are the utricle and saccule?
they provide position and linear movement Sensations whether the body is moving or stationary
What macula is responsible for horizontal movement?
Macula Of Utricle
What macula is responsible for vertical movement?
macula of saccule
What are otoliths?
Densely packed calcium carbonate crystals
eardrum; intially converts sound waves into vibrations
Distance between two adjacent wave crest (peaks) or distance between two adjacent wave troughs
number of waves that pass a fixed reference point in a given time.
Frequency, the relative highness or lowness of sound
Is the height , force, or power of the wave.
The amount of energy in a sound wave
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