An early modern term for the study of the nature of the universe, its purpose and how it functioned; it encompassed what today we would call science.
The idea that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe; this had tremendous scientific and religious implications.
The approach, first developed by Galileo, that the proper way to explore the workings of the universe was through repeatable experiments rather than speculation.
law of inertia
A law formulated by Galileo that stated that rest was not the natural state of an object. Rather, an object continues in motion forever unless stopped by some external force.
law of universal gravitation
A law stating that every body in the universe attracts every other body in the universe in a precise mathematical relationship, with the force of attraction being proportional to the quantity of matter of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
A theory of inductive reasoning that calls for acquiring evidence through observation and experimentation rather than reason and speculation.