an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed that the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences--and the therapist's interpretations of them--released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
in psychoanalysis the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
in psychoanalysis the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
in psychoanalysis the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth.
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning. Includes exposure therapy and aversive conditioning
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid.
a type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol).
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the token for various privileges or treats
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
regression toward the mean
the tendency for extremes of unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
a chemical that provides an effective drug therapy for the mood swings of bipolar disorders
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollable emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
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