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Psychology (Seventh Edition)
An instance of a mental disorder in which someone does show symptoms, but not at a level of intensity, frequency, or duration that would justify a formal diagnosis
An understanding of how a patient's cultural background shapes his beliefs, values, and expectations for therapy
Approaches to therapy that are derived from psychoanalytic theory, which asserts that clinical symptoms arise from unconscious conflicts rooted in childhood
A patient's tendency to respond to the analyst or therapist in ways that re-create her responses to major figures in her life
A form of therapy focused on helping the patient understand how she interacts with others and then learn better ways of interacting and communicating
An approach to therapy centered around the idea that people must take responsibility for their lives and actions
A form of humanistic therapy associated with Carl Rogers, in which the therapist's genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and emphatic understanding are crucial to therapeutic success
A brief, nonconfrontational, client-centered therapy designed to change specific problematic behaviors such as alcohol or drug abuse
A form of humanistic therapy associated with Fritz Perls that aims to help the patient integrate inconsistent aspects of herself into a coherent whole by increasing self-awareness and self-acceptance
A family of therapies that seek to create an empathic and accepting therapeutic atmosphere, while challenging the patient to deepen his experience
A behavior therapy that aims to remove the anxiety connected to a feared stimulus by gradually conditioning relaxed responses to the stimulus
In vivo Desensitization
One key step in the behavioral treatment of a phobia in which the patient is gradually exposed to the phobic stimulus
A behavioral therapy technique based on operant conditioning in which patients' positive behaviors are reinforced with tokens that they can exchange for desirable items
A form of behavior therapy in which certain behaviors are reliably followed by well-defined consequences
Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy
A form of cognitive therapy associated with Albert Ellis, in which the therapist actively challenges the patient's irrational beliefs
An approach to therapy that tries to change some of the patient's habitual modes of thinking about herself, her situation and her future
A set of cognitive therapy techniques for changing a person's maladaptive beliefs or interpretations through persuasion and confrontation
A hybrid form of psychotherapy focused on changing the patient's habitual interpretations of the world and ways of behving
An approach to treatment that deliberately weaves together multiple types and forms of therapy
Medications that control, or at least moderate, the manifestations of some mental disorders
A movement that began in the 1950s that aimed to provide better, less expensive care for chronically mentally ill patients in their own communities rather than at large, centralized hospitals
Medications designed to counteract depression
Medications that treat bipolar disorder, such as lithium
Drugs that alleviate the symptoms of anxiety
Neurosurgery performed to alleviate the manifestations of mental disorders that cannot be alleviated using psychotherapy, medication or other standard treatments
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
A somatic treatment, mostly used for cases of severe depression, in which a brief electric current is passed through the brain to produce a convulsive seizure
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)
An emerging biomedical treatment for depression that involves applying rapid pulses of magnetic stimulation to the brain from a coil held near the scalp
The relationship between therapist and patient that helps many patients feel hopeful and supported
Empirically Supported Treatments
Clinical methods that research has shown to be effective for treating a given disorder
Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT)
A procedure for evaluating the outcome of therapy, usually involving random assignment of participants to one or more treatment groups or a no-treatment control group
A chemically inert substance that produces real medical benefits because the patient believes it will help her
In randomized clinical trials, a control condition in which patients receive delayed treatment rather than no treatment. Before being treated, they are compared to patients treated earlier
A form of therapy, often used in research, in which a manual describes a set of course of therapy, indicating what steps the therapist should take, what instructions to offer, and so on
Whether a therapeutic intervention works under carefully controlled conditions
Whether a therapeutic intervention works under real-world conditions
A statistical technique for combining the results of many studies on a particular topic, even when the studies used different data collection methods
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