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a. affect about 40% of Americans at some point in their lives.
b. are associated with major depression in about 35% of people.
c. include episodes of panic, phobic avoidance behaviors, and compulsive rituals.
d. are less disabling than other mental illnesses because anxiety has survival value.
2. All of the following occur during anxiety except
a. stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system.
b. sleep disturbances.
c. activation of the fight-or-flight response.
d. impaired concentration.
Acute anxiety can be most effectively treated with
a. tricyclic antidepressants.
b. cognitive behavior therapy.
c. benzodiazepine medications.
What area of the brain coordinates the components of anxiety and other emotions?
c. Locus coeruleus
In addition to the central nucleus of the amygdala, the _______ appears to play an important role in initiating sustained emotional responses of anxiety when danger signals are unclear.
c. lateral nucleus of the amygdala
d. prefrontal cortex
What area of the brain exerts inhibitory control over the areas involved in emotions?
a. Parietal cortex
b. Prefrontal cortex
c. Limbic system
d. Temporal cortex
Which of the following statements about CRF is false?
a. CRF acts as both a hormone and a neurotransmitter.
b. Hormonal CRF activates the pituitary glands during stress.
c. CRF antagonists that reduce stress or anxiety have not yet been discovered.
d. High levels of CRF receptors are found in brain regions involved in anxiety.
All of the following are true regarding the role of norepinephrine in anxiety except
a. inhibition of the locus coeruleus can elicit alerting and fear responses in animals.
b. abnormal sympathetic nervous system activation is a common feature of anxiety disorders.
c. excess norepinephrine activity can contribute to the formation of trauma memories in PTSD.
d. some anxiety-reducing drugs work by inhibiting norepinephrine pathways.
Administration of _______ before retrieval of a traumatic memory seems to diminish the emotional aspects of the memory without affecting the memory itself, suggesting a role for these drugs in the treatment of _______.
a. a CRF antagonist; specific phobia
b. a -blocker; PTSD
c. a benzodiazepine; PTSD
d. yohimbine; GAD
Which of the following is not an effect of anxiety-reducing drugs on locus coeruleus (LC) cell firing?
a. TCAs enhance norepinephrine action at inhibitory autoreceptors to reduce LC firing.
b. Benzodiazepines increase the inhibitory effects of GABA on the cells in the LC.
c. Yohimbine increases serotonin and norepinephrine, resulting in a decrease in LC firing.
d. SSRIs increase serotonin, which inhibits LC firing.
Which of the following regarding the role of GABA in anxiety is false?
a. The GABA drug muscimol causes anxiety.
b. Intracranial injections of benzodiazepines reduce anxiety in operant conflict tasks.
c. Bicuculline blocks benzodiazepine-enhancement of behavior in the social interaction test in animals.
d. Benzodiazepine injections into the amygdala increase the number of light–dark crossings in animals.
Neurosteroids exert their _______ effects by _______.
a. anxiogenic; increasing LC firing
b. anxiolytic; activating the prefrontal cortex
c. anxiolytic; enhancing GABA’s effect on chloride channels
d. anxiogenic; activating the hippocampus
The research linking serotonin to anxiety is mostly based on
a. levels of serotonin turnover and metabolites in anxious individuals.
b. the fact that benzodiazepines have major effects of the serotonin system.
c. the monoamine hypothesis of anxiety, which is widely accepted.
d. the mechanism of action of anxiolytic drugs like BuSpar and the SSRIs.
Dopamine plays a modulatory role in anxiety by apparently inhibiting _______ and thus increasing activation of the _______.
a. inhibitory control from the prefrontal cortex; amygdala
b. the amygdala; prefrontal cortex
c. the hypothalamus; sympathetic nervous system
d. VTA; prefrontal cortex
Which of the following about adult mice exposed to early pre-natal stress is false?
a. They show enhanced HPA axis activity in response to stress.
b. They show disrupted negative feedback of the HPA axis.
c. They have increased numbers of glucocorticoid receptors.
d. They show increased expression of CRF in the amygdala.
The consequences of early exposure to stress include _______ and depend on both _______ and _______.
a. atrophy of the amygdala; genetics; gender
b. HPA axis response to stress; timing of stressor; gender
c. hyperactivity; age; ethnicity
d. cognitive changes; nutritional status; history of substance use
Which of the following is not a clinical anxiety disorder recognized by the American Psychiatric Association?
a. Panic attacks
b. Obsessive–compulsive disorder
c. Acute anxiety
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
a. is one of the least common anxiety disorders.
b. starts in the teens or twenties and persists throughout life.
c. will lead to agoraphobia if untreated.
d. is genetically determined, as twin studies strongly indicate.
Which of the following about panic disorder is false?
a. The individual experiences intense parasympathetic arousal.
b. The individual feels like they are going to die or lose control.
c. The unpredictable nature of the attacks creates a feeling of anticipatory anxiety.
d. The worry of having attacks in unsafe places often leads to the development of agoraphobia.
Which of the following has not been implicated as a risk factor or triggers in panic disorder?
a. Genetic predisposition for panic
b. Breathing air with decreased amounts of carbon dioxide
c. Injection with lactic acid
d. Yohimbine injection
During an induced panic attack, an increase in the physiological signs of panic could be caused by _______, and increased activity of the _______ would make the person more aware of those sensations.
a. increased activity of the hippocampus; amygdala
b. decreased activity of the prefrontal cortex; sympathetic nervous system
c. increased activity of the amygdala; insula
d. increased activity of the insula; prefrontal cortex
Which of the following about phobias is false?
a. They involve fears that the person recognizes as extreme or irrational.
b. They are in part determined by culture; for example the Chinese often fear the cold and loss of body heat.
c. They are effectively treated by having the person relax while presenting the feared stimulus in gradually increasing intensities.
d. They are rarely so severe that they affect the quality of a person’s life.
Which of the following about (PTSD) is false?
a. It has been diagnosed in very few soldiers returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
b. It occurs in people who have experienced or witnessed traumatic events, such as the 9/11
c. It is characterized by nightmares and flashbacks in which people relive the traumatic event.
d. It is associated with increased physiological and psychological reactivity to events that are related to the trauma.
Which of the following is not a reliable symptom or characteristic of PTSD?
a. Sleep disturbances
b. Numbing of emotional responses
c. High cortisol levels
d. High incidence of substance abuse
Which of the following about OCD is false?
a. It is characterized by obsessions and compulsions.
b. It is now considered to be the most common anxiety disorder.
c. It creates great anxiety for patients if they are unable to carry out their rituals.
d. It is considered by some researchers to be a motor disorder.
All of the following brain areas have been implicated in the neurobiological model of OCD except for the
b. basal ganglia.
d. anterior cingulate cortex.
Which of the following pieces of evidence does not support the neurobiological model of OCD?
a. Increased PET activity in the frontal lobes is correlated with OCD symptoms.
b. OCD patients show changes in the caudate on CT scans.
c. SSRI treatment normalizes overactivity in the striatum and improves symptoms of OCD.
d. Compulsive behavior has been linked to decreased activity in the ant. cing. cortex in people with OCD.
Drugs that relieve anxiety are
c. CNS depressants.
d. All of the above
Anxiolytic drugs do not
a. produce relaxation along with drowsiness and poor motor coordination.
b. typically cause their effects on the CNS by increasing the transmitter dopamine.
c. include alcohol which has a very unsafe therapeutic index.
d. reduce seizures.
Which of the following is not a way that benzodiazepines affect GABA at the synapse?
a. They act as GABA antagonists and produce inhibitory effects.
b. They cause an IPSP.
c. They result in a local hyperpolarization.
d. They cause the chloride ion channel to open more frequently.
Which of the following about the barbiturates is true?
a. Ultrashort-acting barbiturates are the most likely to be abused.
b. Short/intermediate-acting barbiturates are most likely to be prescribed for insomnia.
c. Long-acting barbiturates are typically used for anesthesia.
d. Amytal and Seconal are both long-acting barbiturates.
Which of the following is not a side effect of the barbiturates?
a. Tolerance to the respiratory effects of the drug
b. REM rebound after withdrawal from the medication
c. Cognitive deficits
d. Tolerance to the sedative effects of the drug
Tolerance develops to the _______ effects of barbiturates, but not to the _______ effects.
a. sedative; respiratory-depressant
b. muscle relaxant; mood
c. respiratory-depressant; hypnotic
d. reinforcing; sedative
Which of the following is not a reason that the benzodiazepines are preferred over barbiturates?
a. They do not produce much sedation.
b. They have a low incidence of tolerance.
c. They are more effective at reducing anxiety.
d. There is a less severe withdrawal syndrome.
The duration of action of benzodiazepines
a. is fairly constant, ranging from 10–20 hours.
b. is shorter for drugs like Valium and Librium that have active metabolites.
c. depends partly on whether drugs are redistributed to fat and muscle depots.
d. is equal to the length of time it takes for phase I metabolism to occur.
All of the following are therapeutic uses of the benzodiazepines except
a. presurgical anesthesia involving relaxation and decreased awareness.
b. treatment of insomnia.
c. muscle relaxation.
d. deep anesthesia involving loss of consciousness.
Which of the following is not an advantage that the benzodiazepines have over the barbiturates?
a. There is more metabolic tolerance with the BZDs than the barbiturates.
b. The BZD's have a higher therapeutic index.
c. There is an antagonist drug available to reverse the effects of BZD overdose but not barbiturate overdose.
d. The withdrawal following use of BZD's is milder than barbiturates, and it is not life-threatening.
Which of the following groups is most likely to increase the intake of benzodiazepine drugs or choose benzodiazepines over a placebo?
a. Anxious subjects
b. Animals in the self-administration paradigm
c. Normal volunteers
d. Individuals experiencing withdrawal from diazepam
BuSpar or buspirone has all of the following effects except
a. it is more effective at reducing the cognitive aspects of worry than the physical components of anxiety.
b. it is a partial agonist at the benzodiazepine receptor.
c. it does not cause sedation or confusion.
d. it is unlikely to be abused as it may cause dysphoria.
Which of the following is not a reason BuSpar has limitations as a clinically effective drug?
a. It takes too long to work; hence it cannot be used for situational anxiety.
b. It shows no cross-tolerance with other sedative-hypnotics and hence cannot be used to substitute for these drugs during withdrawal.
c. It is not useful as a treatment for insomnia.
d. It produces a severe withdrawal syndrome.
BuSpar’s therapeutic effects are related to its actions on _______ receptors.
d. both GABAA and GABAB
Which is not a reason that antidepressants are used to treat anxiety disorders?
a. Depression and anxiety often occur together
b. The side effects of the SSRIs are more tolerable than those of the anxiolytic drugs.
c. The antidepressant desipramine is particularly effective in treating both anxiety and depression.
d. Some people with anxiety disorders are prone to drug abuse and should not take the traditional anxiolytics; antidepressants are another option.
In a double-blind crossover experiment comparing the ability of two antidepressants to reduce OCD symptoms, a drug that blocks _______ was more effective at reducing symptoms than the antidepressant that blocks _______.
a. 5-HT reuptake; NE reuptake
b. NE reuptake; 5-HT reuptake
c. 5-HT1A receptors; NE reuptake
d. DA reuptake; NE reuptake
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