during early 7th C., acc. to story, Gabriel spoke to Muhammad, revealed God's word-Arabic for "submission"
means "those who submit", accepted Muhammad's teachings
means "recitation" collected revelations of muhammad, collected/ordered after death-holy book of Islam
622-denotes Muhammad's emigration from Mecca north to Medina-(became political/spiritual leader there) marks year 1 in Islamic calendar
muslim place of prayer/worship- from Arabic "masjid"-"place for bowing down"
empty niche set in quibla wall of a mosque
wall (toward Mecca) that muslims face during prayer
Islamic art restrictions
strict warning in qur'an about worship of idols-eventually became extra doctrine forbidding images of animate beings in religious contexts. Islamic art became geometric, stylized plants, arabic script
pointed arch-opening in rectangular frame- marked entry to royal reception hall in Persian palaces-interior
larger iwan, set in prayer wall
triangular scoops in interior of iwan, that look hollowed out as if by giant spoon, tiers of clustered muqarnas look like honeycomb or stalactites
Granada, Spain--14th C. Nasrid dynasty
Writing out qu'aran is often viewed as...
an act of prayer-Calligraphy became highly regarded art as result, never illustrated with images of animate beings/ornamented manuscripts with geometric patterns/stylized plant forms.
True or False: No Islamic works could be illustrated with images
False: Books, except for the qur'an could be illustrated with images
Islamic view on arts of daily life
Hold book in especially high esteem but generally consider all objects produced with skill/taste equally deserving of praise and attention
terra cotta, smooth surfaces, d-shaped eyes, culture in ancient Nigeria, work made bewteen 500 B.C., 200 C.E., broken off at neck probably used to be full figure, elaborate hairstyle would have had jewelry/other ornaments- this culture probably inclufnced later cultures like Benin
Minkisi (sing. nkisi)
means "medicine" most well known/compelling works of spiritual agency of Kongo/neigboring peoples of Central Africa.- containers, hold materials that allow a ritual specialist to harness the powers of the dead in the service of the living. most famous are statues of fercious hunters (minkondi- or singular, nkondi)-punish witches, wrongdoers
picture of him displays practice of wearing ancestry in regalia, pinnacle of crown beaded bird, bird heads protrude from Cone. brids refer to female ancestors kind draws on. known as Our Mthers, believed able to transform into night birds. veil covers king's face, subjects not allowed to gaze directly on sacred being. eyes of ancestors look out.
performed sacred or secretly, rituals involve spirits, natural forces, human types, social roles including onyeocha "white man"-studying, taking notes. often portray tourists as well with cameras, elbowing through the crowd. muslim scholars, sometimes satirifcal, questions ability to "study" another cultural while it "holds still"- "You do not stand in one place to watch a masqerade" -Igbo saying. -influence of observer/observed -p. 416
guiding spirit of Temne woman's organization called Bondo, regulates female affairs-prepares young girls for initation into adult status/presents them to cmmunity-removed from families, learn secrets of adulthood/undergo physical ordeals. considered "inbetween" black mask-feminine beauty/modesty rings around base-moth chrysalis, girls emerge from Bondo as women. white scarf, nowo's empathy for girls painted white during isolation.
Fetish Figure: seek help from the gods
plain carved figure, ritual specialist ads packets of materials to surface, linked to dead/dire punishment specialist enrages nkondi into action, driving nails into it, other materials accumulate
most honored Mask of Igbo people of Nigeria, funeral of important man, spirit to other world, ease of transition from state of being to next. resembles anthill, porches to spirit world, venerable tree, symbol of life under which elders meet, tassles, mirrors, masks, animals, sculptures,, large eyes-watchfulness of spirits.
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