the total sum of ways of thinking, behavior, and material objects that make up a people's way of life.
the ideas and concepts of a culture. Examples include language, jokes, expression, religion
the stuff critical to a people's way of life. Examples include farm equipment, sacred texts, jewelry, and glasses
personal disorientation, which may range from slight awkwardness to revulsion or fear, which results from the exposure to a different way of life.
anything that carries meaning to people who share a common culture
a system of symbols that allow people to communicate with each other
the passing of culture from one generation to the next
states that people understand their surroundings based on their language; thus, language determines how individuals view reality
culturally defined standards of what behavior or attitudes are good or bad, desirable or undesirable
a specific statement that people hold to be true. Examples include "the world is round", "God is real", "Capitalism is good.
rules and guidelines society uses to control its members
a type of norm; a rule of a highly moral nature. Example: you should not kill children
a type of norm; a more casual norm of lesser significance that is a matter of politeness. Example: you should cover your nose when you sneeze
knowledge that people use to create culture and change their surroundings
an item created with technology
Historical changes in culture that brought to bring about technological advancement
use of simple tools and food sources drawn primarily from the gathering of plant matter supplemented with hunted meat. All members of society must help to collect and prepare food. These societies typically have traditions of complex story telling, and high degrees of spirituality. Fun Fact: people in Hunter-Gatherer societies typically work less than four hours per day
the Horticulturalism and Pastoralism
Horticulture: The use of hand tools for the purposes of raising crops; common in wet, warm climates. Pastoralism: the domestication of animals; common in dry climates or those not hospitable for growing plants. It should be noted that Christianity, Judaism, and Islam have their origins in pastoral societies
Large scale Cultivation of the land using plows and other tools. This allows for overproduction of food for surplus and, thus, allows for some individuals to spend time doing activities other than farming. During this stage, great raises of social inequality develop along with slave ownership and empire building
The mass production of goods using advanced energy sources. This allows for even greater surplus, but also greater social inequality
Postindustrial Information Technology
Production based on high technology, ideas, and information
the culture of society's elite. A knowledge of this culture may allow an individual some advantage when dealing with these individuals
The culture of the masses; examples: commonly known facts and tidbits about sports, celebrities, etc.
cultural patterns that separate a group from the rest of a population. They may have their own terms, behaviors, and symbols
:: a perspective recognizing cultural diversity and encouraging the respect of all cultural traditions
the stressing of European cultural patterns at the expense of other cultural patterns
stressing and promoting African cultural patterns; this is usually done to counter Eurocentrism
a cultural pattern that stands in opposition to that held by the rest of society. Examples include hippies, the Black Panthers, and religious militants
: the relationships among parts of a cultural system
: when cultural elements change faster than morals can keep up. An example of this in contemporary society is the morality debate surrounding stem cell research
Judging of one culture by the standards of another; often results in prejudice.
The judging of a culture by its own standards and acknowledging that all are acceptable. However. this still allows for the questioning of highly controversial cultural practices
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