A drug that stimulates receptors normally specific to a particular neurotransmitter.
Any of the various forms in which a particular gene is found.
A subcortical structure of the temporal lobe involved in attention to emotionally salient stimuli and memory of emotionally relevant events.
A drug that dampens the effect of a neurotransmitter on its receptors; for example, many dopamine antagonists block dopamine receptors.
In the subcortical region of the brain, the anterior portion of the cingulate gyrus, stretching about the corpus callosum.
The type of style of an infant's attachment to his or her caregivers can set the stage for psychological health or problems later in development.
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
The division of the nervous system that regulates involuntary functions; innervates endocrine glands, smooth muscle, and heart muscle; and initiates the physiological changes that are part of the expression of emotion.
The study of individual differences in behavior that are attributable to difference in genetic makeup.
The part of the brain connecting the spinal cord with the cerebellum; contains the pons and medulla oblongata and functions as a neural relay station.
Time-limited psychotherapy, usually ego-analytic in orientation and lasting no more than 25 sessions.
An are of the hindbrain concerned with balance, posture, and motor coordination.
The process of knowing; the thinking, judging, reasoning, and planning activities of the human mind. Behavior is now often explained as depending on these processes.
cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)
Behavior therapy that incorporates theory and research on cognitive processes such as thoughts, perceptions, judgments, self-statements, and tacit assumptions; a blend of both the cognitive and behavioral paradigms.
cognitive behavioral paradigm
General view that people can best be understood by studying how they perceive and structure their experiences and how this influences behavior.
Any behavior therapy procedure that attempts to alter the manner in which a client thinks about life so that he or she changes overt behavior and emotions.
The large band of nerve fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres.
A "stress hormone" secreted by the adrenal cortices; helps the body prepare to face threats.
Predisposition toward a disease or abnormality.
As applied in psychopathology, a view that assumes that individuals predisposed toward a particular mental disorder will be particularly affected by stress and will then manifest abnormal behavior.
Central nervous system neurotransmitter, a catecholamine that is also a precursor of norepinephrine and apparently figures in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease.
The expression, experience, and physiology that guide responses to problems and challenges in the environment.
Real-life (in vivo) or imaginal confrontation of a feared object or situation, especially as a component of systematic desensitization.
The anterior portion of each cerebral hemisphere, in front of the central sulcus; active in reasoning and other higher mental processes.
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Inhibitory neurotransmitter that may be involved in the anxiety disorders.
The smallest portion of DNA within a chromosome that functiont as a piece of functional hereditary information.
The switching on and off of the reading (transcription and translation) of genes into their products (usually proteins) and thus their associated phenotypes.
The influence of genetics on an individuals's sensitivity or reaction to an environmental event.
Since the early twentieth century, the approach to human behavior that focuses on both heritability of traits and complex interactions between genes and environment
An individual's unobservable, genetic constitution, that is, the totality of genes present in the cells of an individual; often applied to the genes contributing to a single trait.
The neural tissue - made up largely of nerve cell bodies - that constitutes the cortex covering the cerebral hemisphere, the nuclei in lower brain areas, columns of the spinal cord, and the ganglia of the autonomic nervous system.
The extent to which variability in a particular behavior/disorder within a population can be attributed to genetic factors.
In the subcortical region of the brain, the long, tubelike, structure that stretches from the septal area into the temporal lobe.
The neuroendocrine connections among hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal cortex, central to the body's response to stress
In the subcortical region of the brain, the structure that regulates many visceral processes, including metabolism, temperature, perspiration, blood pressure, sleeping, and appetite.
As applied in psychology, taking place in a real-life situation.
interpersonal therapy (IPT)
A short-term. here-and-now focused psychological treatment initially developed for depression and influenced by the psychodynamic emphasis on relationships.
Studies that seek to determine the components of a trait that are heritable by identifying relevant genes and their functions.
A wave of depolarization that propagates along the neuron and causes the release of neurotransmitter; action potential.
A single nerve cell.
A broad theoretical view that holds that mental disorders are caused in part by some aberrant process directed by the brain.
Chemical substances important in transferring a nerve impulse from one neuron to another; for example, serotonin and norepinephrine.
Factors distinct among family members, such as relationships with friends or specific experiences unique to a person.
A catecholamine neurotransimtter of the central nervous system, disturbances in the tracts of which apparently figure in depression and mania.
Variant of psychoanalytic theory that focuses on the way children internalize (introject) images of the people who are important to them, such that these internalized images become part of the ego and influence how the person reacts to the world.
The posterior portion of each cerebral hemisphere, situated behind the parietal lobe and above the temporal lobes; responsible for reception and analysis of visual information and for some visual memory.
A set of basic assumptions that outlines the universe of scientific inquiry, specifying both the concepts regarded as legitimate and the methods to be used in collecting and interpreting data.
parasympathetic nervous system
The division of the autonomic nervous system that is involved with maintenance; controls many of the internal organs and is active primarily when the organism is not aroused.
The middle division of each cerebral hemisphere, situated behind the central sulcus and above the lateral sulcus; the receiving center for sensations of the skin and of bodily positions.
The totality of physical characteristics and behavioral traits of an individual, or a particular trait exhibited by an individual; the product of interactions between genetics and the environment over the course of development.
As applied to psychopathy or any other trait, caused by multiple genes contributing their effects, typically during multiple stages of development.
any specific difference in DNA sequence that exists within a population.
The region of the frontal lobe of the brain that helps maintain an image of threats and rewards faced, as well as maintain focus and plan relevant to those threats and rewards.
In neural development, the selective loss of synaptic connections, especially in the fine-tuning of brain regions devoted to sensory processing.
General view based on psychodynamic and psychoanalytic theory.
rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
A cognitive-restructuring behavior therapy introduced by Albert Ellis and based on the assumption that much disordered behavior is rooted in absolutistic, unrealistic demands and goals, such as, "I must be universally loved."
reciprocal gene-environment interaction
The gentic predisposition for an individual to seek out certain environments that increase the risk of developing a particular disorder.
Cellular process by which released neurotransmitters are taken back into the presynaptic cell, terminating their present postsynaptic effect but making them available for subsequent modulation of nerve impulse transmission.
a mental structure for organizing information about the world.
Intercellular molecules whose levels are increased by sustained activity of neurotransmitter & affect the resting states of ion channels or regulate gene expression of receptor molecules thus modulating the cell's sensitivity to neurotransmitter
In the subcortical region of the brain, the area anterior to the thalamus.
A neurotransmitter of the central nervous system whose disturbances apparently figure in depression.
serotonin transporter gene
A particular gene critical to the gene-environment interactions that apparently contribute to the development of depression.
Factors that family members have in common, such as income level, child-rearing practices, and parental marital status and quality.
sympathetic nervous system
The division of the autonomic nervous system that acts on bodily systems - for example, contracting the blood vessels, increasing the heartbeat - to prepare the organism for exertion, emotional stress, or extreme cold.
Small gap between two neurons where the nerve signal passes electrically or chemically from the axon of the first to the dendrites, cell body, or axon of the second.
A large region of each cerebral hemisphere situated below the lateral sulcus and in front of the occipital lobe; contains primary auditory and general association areas.
A major brain relay station consisting of two egg-shaped lobes; receives impulses from all sensory areas except the olfactory and transmits them to the cerebrum for higher processing.
An operant-conditioning procedure in which, after bad behavior, the person is temporarily removed from a setting where reinforcers can be obtained and placed in a less desirable setting, for example, in a boring room.
A behavior therapy procedure, based on operant-conditioning principles, in which hospitalized patients are given scrip rewards for socially constructive behavior. The tokens can be exchanged for desirable items and activities.
Cavities deep within the brain, filled with cerebrospinal fluid, that connect to the spinal cord.
Neural tissue, particularly of the brain and spinal cord, consisting of tracts or bundles of myelinated (sheathed) nerve fibers.
It is also a sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitter, a hormone released in addition to epinephrine and similar in action, ans a strong vasoconstrictor.
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