Developed the anomie theory; believed that society encourages the individual to engage in deviant activities; goal means gap leads to deviance.
The breakdown of social norms that results from society's urging people to be ambitious but failing to provide them w/ the opportunities to succeed.
Responses to the Goal-Means Gap
1. Conformity: Accepting the cultural goal of success and the use of legitimate means of working toward it. 2. Innovation: Reject the use of legal means in favor of illegal ones. 3. Ritualism: Compulsively abide by the norms. 4. Retreatism: Withdrawal from society. 5. Rebellion: Rejecting the expectation to work hard.
Replaces Merton's word "success" with "status."
The goal-means gap leads to status frustration, which leads to deviance.
Cloward & Ohlin
Added the concept of "differential illegitimate opportunity" to Merton's theory. Goal-means gap leads to differential illegitimate opportunity, which leads to deviance. Comes from 3 types of subcultures: criminal, conflict, & retreatist.
Offers illegitimate opportunities for achieving success.