Developed the anomie theory; believed that society encourages the individual to engage in deviant activities; goal means gap leads to deviance.
The breakdown of social norms that results from society's urging people to be ambitious but failing to provide them w/ the opportunities to succeed.
Responses to the Goal-Means Gap
1. Conformity: Accepting the cultural goal of success and the use of legitimate means of working toward it. 2. Innovation: Reject the use of legal means in favor of illegal ones. 3. Ritualism: Compulsively abide by the norms. 4. Retreatism: Withdrawal from society. 5. Rebellion: Rejecting the expectation to work hard.
Replaces Merton's word "success" with "status."
The goal-means gap leads to status frustration, which leads to deviance.
Cloward & Ohlin
Added the concept of "differential illegitimate opportunity" to Merton's theory. Goal-means gap leads to differential illegitimate opportunity, which leads to deviance. Comes from 3 types of subcultures: criminal, conflict, & retreatist.
Offers illegitimate opportunities for achieving success.
A youngster has the opportunity to achieve "rep" w/in a violent delinquent gang.
The only requirement for membership is the willingness to enjoy the use of drugs.
Messner & Rosenfeld
It's not the relative lack of opportunity that causes deviance, it's the overwhelming culture of the American Dream that encourages people to adopt an "anything goes" mentality in the pursuit of success.
The pursuit of the American Dream can cause deviance because it reflects a strong self interest w/ little or no social interest.
There are 2 others kinds of strain that could lead to deviance: 1. The removal of positively valued stimuli 2. The presentation of negative stimuli
Developed the social learning theory, which says that deviance is learned through one's interaction w/ others. Developed the theory of differential association to explain this.
Based on the idea that if an individual associates w/ people who hold deviant ideas, he/she is likely to become deviant. It's okay to have both deviant and conventional contacts, but not to have an excess of deviant ones.
Differential association leads to deviance.
Sutherland's theory is too mechanical and ignores the individual's role-taking and choice-making ability. Says the experience of associating w/ deviants is harmless unless the person identifies w/ them.
Differential association leads to differential identification, which leads to deviance.
Burgess & Akers
Sutherland failed to explain what the learning process entails.
Differential association leads to differential reinforcement, which leads to deviance.
Approaches the problem of explaining deviance by asking what causes conformity. What causes deviance is the absence of what causes conformity. Assumes that people are naturally inclined to commit deviant acts and will do so unless they're properly controlled.
Assumes that all of us are endowed like animals w/ the ability to commit deviant acts, but most of us don't take advantage of this because of our strong bond to society.
4 Ways of Bonding to Society
1. Attachment: To conventional people and institutions. 2. Commitment: To conformity and conventional types of action. 3. Involvement: In conventional activities to take up their time. 4. Belief: In the moral validity of social rules.
Says that it's a lack of control balance that causes deviance. They have either a "control surplus" or a "control deficit."
Looks at how society controls us through shaming. There are 2 types of shaming: 1. Disintegrative: Wrongdoer is stigmatized and rejected, banished from society. 2. Reintegrative: Wrongdoer is shown forgiveness and understanding, reintegrates them into society.
Focuses on formal social control, humans will weight the cost/benefit of deviance. 3 ways in which punishment can be carried out: 1. Severity 2. Certainty 3. Swiftness
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