a drug that stimulates receptors normally specific to a particular neurotransmitter.
any of the various forms in which a particular gene is found
a subcortical structure of the temporal lobe involve in attention to emotionally salient stimuli and memory of emotionally relevant events
a drug that dampens the effect of a neurotransmitter on its receptors; for example, many dopamine antagonist block dopamine receptors
in the subcortical region of the brain, the anterior portion of the cingulate gyrus, stretching about the corpus callosum.
the style of an infants attachment to his or her caregivers can set the stage for psychological health or problems later in development
autonomic nervous system ANS
the division of the nervous system that regulates involuntary functions; innervates endocrine glands, smooth muscle, and heart muscle; and initiates the physiological changes that are part of the expression of emotion.
the study of individual differences in behavior that are attributed to difference in genetic makeup
the part of the brain connecting the spinal cord with the cerebrum; contains the pons and medulla oblongata and functions as a neural relay station.
time limited psychotherapy , usually ego analytic in orientation and lasting no more than 25 sessions
an area of the hindbrain concerned with balance, posture, and motor coordination
the process of knowing, thinking, judging, reasoning, and planning activities of the human mind. behavior is now often explained as depending on these processes.
cognitive behavior therapy
behavior therapy that incorporates theory and research on cognitive processes such as thoughts, perceptions, judgments, self statements, and tacit assumptions; a blend of both the cognitive and behavioral paradigms.
cognitive behavioral paradigm
general view that people can best be understood by studying how they perceive and structure their experience and how this influence behavior.
any behavior therapy procedure that attempts to alter the manner in which a client thinks about life so that he or she changes overt behaviors and emotions.
the large band of nerve fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
a stress hormone secreted by the adrenal cortices; helps the body prepare to face threats
predisposition toward a disease or abnormality
as applied in psychopathology, a view that assumes that individuals predisposed toward a particular mental disorder will be particularly affected by stress and will then manifest abnormal behavior.
central nervous system neurotransmitter, a catecholamine that is also a precursor of norepinephrine and apparently figures in schizophrenia and parkinsons disease
the expression, experience, and physiology that guide responses to problems and challenges in the environment.
real life (in vivo) or imaginal confrontation of a feared object of situation, especially as a component of systematic desensitization.
the anterior portion of each cerebral hemisphere, in front of the central sulcus; active in reasoning and other higher mental processes
gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA
inhibitory neurotransmitter that may be involved in the anxiety disorders
the smallest portion of DNA within a chromosome that functions as a piece of functional hereditary information
the switching on ad off of the reading (transcription and translation) of genes into their products (usually proteins) and thus their associated phenotypes
gene- environment interaction
the influence of genetics on an individuals sensitivity or reaction to an environmental event
since the 20th century, the approach to human behavior that focuses on both heritability of traits and complex interactions between genes and environment
an individuals unobservable, genetic constitution, that is, the totality of genes present in the ells of an individual; often applied to the genes contributing to a single trait.
the neural tissue- made up largely of nerve cell bodies- that constitutes the cortex covering the cerebral hemisphere, the nuclei in lower brain areas, columns of the sinal cord, and the ganglia of the autonomic nervous system
the extent to which variability in a particular behavior/disorder within a population can be attributed to genetic factors.
in subcortical region of the brain, the long tubelike structure that stretches from the septal area into the temporal lobe.
the neuroendocrine connections amoung hypthalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal cortex, central to the bodys response to stress
in the subcortical region of the brain, the structure that regulates many visceral processes, including metabolism, temperature, perspiration, blood pressure, sleep, and appetite.
as applied in psychology, taking place in a real life situation .
interpersonal therapy IPT
a short term, here and now focused psychological treatment initially developed for depression and influenced by the psychodynamic emphasis on relationships.
studies that seek to determine the components of a trait that are heritable by identifying relevant genes and their functions
a wave of depolarization that propages along the neuron and causes the release of neurotransmitter, action potential
a single nerve cell
a broad theoretical view that hold that mental disorders are caused in part by some aberrant process directed by the brain
chemical substances important in transferring a nerve impulse from one neuron to another; for example, serotonin and norepinephrine
factors distinct among family members, such as relationships with friends or specific experiences unique to a person
a neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, disturbances in the tracts of which apparently figure n depression and mania. it is also a sympathetic nervous system neurtransmitter, a hormone released in addition to epinephrine and similar in action.
varient of psychoanalytic theory that focuses on the way children internalize images of the people who are important to them, (their parents) such as these internalized images become part of the ego and influence how the person reacts to the world.
the posterior portion of each cerebral hemisphere, situated behind the parietal lobe and above the temporal lobes; responsible for reception and analysis of visual information and for some visual memory
a set of basic assumptions that outlines the universe of scientific inquiry, specifying both the concepts regarded as legitimate and the methods to be used in collecting and interpreting data.
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that is involved with maintenance; controls many of the internal organs and is active primarily when the organism is not aroused.
the middle division of each cerebral hemisphere, situated behind the central sulcus and above the lateral sulcus, the receiving center for sensations of the skin and of bodily positions.
the totality of physical characteristics and behavioral traits of an individual, or a particular trait exhibited by an individual, the product of interactions between genetics and the environment over the course of development
as applied to psychopathology or any other trait, caused by multiple genes contributing their effects, typically during mutliple stages of development.
any specific difference in DNA sequence that exist within a population.
region of the frontal lobe of the brain that helps maintain an image of threats and rewards faced, as well as maintain focus and plan relevant to those threats rewards.
in neural development, the selective loss of synaptic connections, especially in the fine tuning of brain regions devoted to sensory processing.
general view based on psychodynamic and psychoanalytic theory
rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
a cognitive restructuring behavior therapy that assumes much disorder behavior is rooted in absolutistic, unrealistic demands and goals, such as, i must be love universally.
reciprocal gene-environment interaction
the genetic predispostion for an individual to seek out certain enviornments that increase the risk of developming a particular disorder.
serotonin transporter gene
sympathetic nervous system
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