the tiny space between neurons- chemical messages are sent across these gaps
takes place when people use their existing schemes to make sense of events in their world
occurs when a person must change existing schemes to respond to a new situation
Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development
3) Concrete Operational
4) Formal Operational
0-2 years old
Def: involving the senses and motor activity Characteristics:
Begins to make use of imitation, memory, and thought.
Begins to recognize that objects do not cease to exist when they are hidden.
Moves from reflex actions to goal-directed activity.
Examples: learn to reverse actions
2-7 years old
Def: the stage before a child masters logical mental operations
Gradually develops use of language and ability to think in symbolic form.
Able to think operations through logically in one direction.
Has difficulties seeing another person's point of view.
7-11 years old
Able to solve concrete (hands-on) problems in logical fashion.
Understands laws of conservation and is able to classify and seriate.
Examples: is there the same amount of water in each glass, same amount of clay (after one was squished)
Able to solve abstract problems in logical fashion.
Becomes more scientific in thinking.
Develops concerns about social issues, identity.
body movement and coordination
How messages are sent across the brain.
Each neuron(nerve cell) includes dendrites that bring in messages and an axon that sends out messages. This is a single neuron, but each neuron is in a network with many others.
Vygotsky's Social Perspective
emphasizes role in development of cooperative dialogues between children and more knowledgeable members of society. Children learn the culture of their community (ways of thinking and behaving) through these interactions.
Zone of proximal development
Zone of Proximal Development
phase at which a child can master a task if given appropriate help and support
refers to relatively long lasting changes that occur in human being between conception and death
refers to changes that occur naturally and spontaneously and are genetically programmed
Our development is affected by both
“nature” (maturation, genes, etc. )
“nurture” (education, parenting, culture)
occurs when a person makes sense of the world using their existing schemes
occurs when a person must change their mental schemes to make sense of the world
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