A belief system that holds that the average employee is inclined to be lazy, without ambition, and irresponsible. (This attitude towards workers can result in micromanagement in which managers are over controlling of others and their work)
A belief system that holds that workers are inherently ambitious, responsible, and industrious, and that they will work hard to help an organization reach its goals. This stance fosters an environment that is conducive to employee involvement, participation, and decision making (empowerment) and most people thrive in this environment
A belief system that holds that in organizations with strong, relational cultures, employees have discretionary freedom in local decision making and are trusted to work autonomously (in other words they are empowered)
Generates positive morale and loyalty in workplace
although ideal they are rare--it is nearly impossible to imagine a present-day organization that will offer lifetime employment
Organizations that have few levels of hierarchy, which drives a need for more people to make decisions.
A system of principles governing morality and acceptable conduct
A set of values and principles that guide the behavior of an individual or group
Ideas that a person or group believes to be right or wrong, good or bad, attractive or undesirable.
Enduring and distinguishing personal characteristics that may be inherited, learned, or developed
Models that attempt to explain leadership effectiveness by articulation of physical, psychological, and social characteristics, as well as abilities, knowledge and expertise (i.e. optimism, pessimism, self-confidence, sociability, energy and stamina, intelligence, stamina etc`)
Six categories of traits and characteristics
personality physical characteristics intelligence and ability social background work-relating characteristics social characteristics
Consideration (OHIO STATE STUDY-Behaviors associated with leadership)
People-oriented behaviors such as respect, openness to employees' ideas and concern for employees well being
Initiating Structure (OHIO STATE STUDY-Behaviors associated with leadership)
Behaviors related to task and goal orientation, such as giving clear directions, monitoring employees' performance, and planning and setting work schedules and deadlines
The University of Michigan studies (going on at the same time) concluded that employee-oriented behavior was preferred over production-based behavior
Contingency Approaches to Leadership
Models and theories of leadership that take into account leader behavior and various aspects of the organizational situation and/or characteristics of followers.
-Each situation is different (entrepeneur startup vs. large division of a company) and may call for either interpersonal connections or webinars or email and we also need to take into consideration cultural differences.
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