1: Keep everything running efficiently and profitably, while at the same time,
2: change everything
a study of the past contributes to what?
understanding both the present and the future.
the aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people––their values, needs, and standards of behavior
the influence of political and legal institutions on people and organizations
forces that affect the availability production, and distribution of a society's resources among competing users.
a management perspective that emerged during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that emphasized a rational, scientific approach to the study of management and sought to make organizations efficient operating machines. traced back to 3000B.C.
a subfield of the classical management perspective that emphasized scientifically determined changes in management practices as the solution to improving labor productivity.
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) was known as______?
the "father of scientific management"
Federick Winslow Taylor's (1856-1915) philosophy is encapsuled in his statement "_______"
"In the past the man has been first. In the future, the system must be first."
a bar graph that measures planned and completed work along each stage of production by time elapsed. Created by Henry Gantt
Scientific Management General Approach
Develop standard method for perform each job
Select workers with appropriate abilities for each job
train workers in standard methods
support workers by plan their work and eliminate interruptions
provide wage incentives to workers for increase output
Scientific Management Contributions
Demonstrated the importance of compensation for performance
Initiated the careful study of tasks and jobs
Demonstrated the importance of personnel selection and training
Scientific Management Criticisms
Did not appreciate the social context of work and higher needs of workers
Did not acknowledge variance among individuals
Tended to regard workers as uninformed and ignored their ideas and suggestions
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) dramatically increased ________
productivity across all industries, and they are still important today.
a subfield of the classical management perspective that emphasized management on an impersonal, rational basis through such elements as clearly defined authority and responsibility, formal record-keeping, and separation of management and ownership
who introduced most of the concepts on bureaucratic organizations?
Max Weber (1864-1920), a German theorist
"Labor is divided with clear definitions of authority and responsibility that are legitimized as official duties" is an element of?
"Positions are organized in a hierarchy of authority, with each position under the authority of a higher one" is an element of?
"All personnel are selected and promoted based on tchnl qualif., which are assessed by exmntn or according to training and exprnce" is an element of ?
"Administrative acts and decisions are recorded in writing. Record-keeping provides organizational memory and continuity over time" is an element of?
"Management is separate from the ownership of the organization" is an element of?
"mngrs r subjct to ruls and procedurs tht wll ensure reliable, predctble behvr. Rules are imprsnl and unifrmly appld to all emplyes" is an element of?
the term ________ has taken on a negative meaning in todays organizations and is associated with endless rules and red tape.
A subfield of the classical management perspective that focused on the total organization rather than the individual worker, delineating the management functions of planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling
Max Weber (1864-1920)
The German theorist's concepts on bureaucratic organizations have contributed to the efficiency of many of todays corporation
Henri Fayol (1841-1925)
a French mining engineer who worked his way up to become head of a major mining group known as Comambault. most famous work "General and Industrial Management" discusses 14 general principles of management
Unity of Command
Each subordinate receives orders from on––and only one––superior
Division of Work
Managerial and technical work are amenable to specialization to produce more and better work with the same amount of effort
Unity of direction
similar activities in an organization should be grouped together under one manager
a chain of authority extends from the top to the bottom of the organization and should include every employee
Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933)
a major contributor to the administrative principles approach to management. her emphasis on worker participation and shared goals among managers was embraced by many businesspeople of the day and has been recently "rediscovered" by corporate America
Chester I. Barnard (1886-1961)
contributed to concept of informal organization. organizations are not machines and informal relationships are powerful forces that can help the organization if properly managed
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