The aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people-their values, needs, and standards of behavior
The influence of political and legal institutions on people and organizations
Forces that affect the availability, production, and distribution of a society's resources among competing users.
A management perspective that emerged during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that emphasized a rational, scientific approach to the study of management an sought to make organizations efficient operating machines
A subfield of the classical management perspective that emphasized scientifically determined changes in management practices as the solution to improving labor productivity
A sub field of the classical management perspective that emphasized management on an impersonal, rational basis through such elements as clearly defined authority and responsibility, and separation of management and owneship
A sub field of the classical perspective that focuses on the total organization rather than the individual worker, delineating the management functions of planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling
A management perspective that emerged near the late nineteenth century and emphasized understanding human behavior, needs, and attitudes in the workplace
A series of experiments on worker productivity begun in 1924 at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company in Western Illinois; attributed employees' increased output to managers' better treatment of them during the study
Human relations movement
A movement in management thinking and practice that emphasizes satisfaction of employees' basic needs as the key to increased worker productivity
Human resources perspective
A management perspective that suggests jobs should be designed to meet higher-level needs by allowing workers to use their full potential
Behavioral sciences approach
A sub field of the humanistic management perspective that applies social science in an organizational context, drawing from economics, psychology, sociology, and other disciplines.
Management science perspective
A management perspective that emerged after World War II and applied mathematics, statistics, and other quantitative techniques to managerial problems.
A set of interrelated parts that function as a whole to achieve a common purpose
An extension of the humanistic perspective that describes organizations as open systems characterized by entropy, synergy, and subsystem interdependence.
A system that interacts with the external environment
A system that does not interact with the external system
The tendency for a system to run down and die.
The concept that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
Parts of a system that depend on one another for their functioning.
An extension of the humanistic perspective in which the successful resolution of organizational problems is thought to depend on mangers' identification of key variations in the situation at hand.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
A concept that focuses on managing the total organization to deliver quality to customers.
An organization in which everyone is engaged in identifying and solving problems, enabling the organization to continuously experiment, improve, and increase its capability
Work an organization does by using electronic linkages
Business exchanges or transactions that occur electronically
Supply chain management
Managing the sequence of suppliers and purchasers, covering all stages of processing from obtaining raw materials to distributing finished goods to final customers.
Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
Systems that unite a company's major business functions-order processing, product design, purchasing, inventory, and so on
The efforts to systematically find, organize, and make available a company's intellectual capital and to foster a culture of continuous learning and knowledge sharing.
Customer relationship management (CRM)
Systems that help companies track customers' interaction with the firm and allow employees to call up information on past transactions.
Contracting out selected functions or activities of an organization to other organizations that can do the work more cost-efficiently.
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