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The science of matter, its properties, and is interactions.
Anything that occupies space and has mass.
A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions.
The smallest unit of an element that can exist either alone or in combination.
That part of the atom that has a negative charge and that moves in a shell-like orbit around the nucleus.
An atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge as a result of losing or gaining electrons.
A chemical bond between ions of opposite charge.
A chemical bond formed between atoms as a result of sharing a pair of electrons.
A substance composed of two or more elements combined to definite proportions.
The smallest possible unit of a substance that consists of two or more atoms.
A description of a molecule that indicates the number and kinds of atoms in the molecule.
An expanded drawing that shows the arrangement of atoms and bonds within the molecule.
A change in which a substance looses its characteristics and changes into one or more new substances.
Alteration of a substance in its state of matter and appearance without its being change into a new substance.
A material that contains two or more substances.
Why is an understanding of chemistry important for an understanding of biology?
Biologists are studying the very process of life. For these processes to occur, changes in matter must take place. For this reason one must first understand chemistry.
Define the two components of the physical world.
The two components are matter and energy – because they exist and work together.
What elements are essential to life? What are their chemical symbols?
Elements essential to life are, Oxygen (O), Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N), and Calcium (Ca).
Describe an atom. What is the significance of its electron configuration?
An atom is a piece of an element that has been broken down time and time again, and the pieces that can not be broken anymore are what we call an atom. It makes the atoms shell more stable.
Name and describe the two primary types of chemical bonding.
Two primary types would be ionic bond which is an attraction between oppositely charged ions. And covalent bond is a sharing or electrons.
What things can a scientist determine (a) by studying a molecular formula of a compound and (b) by studying a structural formula compound?
(a) Scientists can find the number and types of atoms in a compound. (b) Scientists can see where the atoms are actually located and the arrangement of the chemical bond.
List and compare the characteristics of a chemical change and a physical change.
Chemical Change – Chemical changes take place in definite proportions. Ten hydrogen atoms can make only five water molecules, no matter how many oxygen molecules are present. New compounds are formed, and/or there is a release of elements. Energy is involved.
The ability to do work.
Energy of motion.
A measure of the unusable energy that escapes when energy is being converted from one form to another; an increase in disorder and degeneration.
The initial energy necessary to start a reaction.
A substance that affects the rate of a reaction but is not change in the reaction.
Name, describe, and give examples of two basic forms of energy.
Kinetic Energy is the energy of motion, such as falling, heat, light, and electricity. Potential Energy is stored energy, like energy found in a rock sitting at the top of a cliff, in a log waiting to be burned, or in a battery ready to be connected to a light bulb.
What are the first and second laws of thermodynamics?
The first law of thermodynamics states that in any process, energy is neither created nor destroyed. The second law of thermodynamics states that whenever energy is used, some of it is rendered unusable.
The molecules when heated become very active, so active that many leave the surface of the fluid as a water vapor, a gas.
The two basic types are endothermic and exothermic.
The random movement of atoms, ions, or molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
The difference between the number of molecules in one area as opposed to the number of the same molecules in an area nearby.
The pressure for diffusion that is produced by the concentration gradient.
A membrane that is preamble to certain molecules or ions but not to others.
Diffusion of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane.
Any substance that yields hydrogen ions when dissolved in water; a substance that neutralizes a base.
A substance that releases hydroxyl ions when dissolved in water; neutralizes an acid.
The situation in which there is no direct relationship between populations in an environment.
A symbol that is used with numbered values from 1 to 14 to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.
The uniform dissolving of one substance into another.
The dissolved substance in a solution.
The substance into which a solute is dissolved.
The state of a substance when its particles are mixed but not dissolved.
Ratio of the solute in the solvent.
A molecule with charged poles.
The special attraction between the water molecule.
When there are no longer places of higher and lower concentration.
A barrier that allows passage of all molecules.
The molecule with which the enzyme is built.
Nonprotein substances that fit into or affect the active site to that it accepts the substrate properly.
What is the difference between organic compounds and inorganic compounds?
Organic compounds come from living things, as for inorganic compounds are from nonliving things.
List three characteristics of the carbon atom that are important in forming organic compounds.
First, it takes place in building the carbon backbone making it so a variety of organic molecules can be formed. Second, carbon atoms affect the shape of the organic molecule and this is very important. Lastly, carbon atoms have four electrons in its outer shell that will readily form covalent bonds.
List the three primary functions of organic compounds.
Structural, Enzymatic, and Storage are the functions.
What chemical element is found in all organic compounds?
The chemical element is enzymes.
List several characteristics of enzymes.
Enzymes are proteins
Enzymes are highly specific
Many enzymes require energy
Many enzymes release energy as they perform their functions
Enzymes often require coenzymes
Enzyme action is affected by heat, radiation, pH, and chemicals
Enzymes most often work in series
Differentiate between an active site and a substrate in an enzyme reaction.
The active site is just one part of the surface of the enzyme, and its very specific in its shape to fit for the substrate. The substrate is the molecule wit which the enzyme will bind.
Why is it accurate to say that enzymes are essential to physical life?
An enzyme catalyzes every reaction within a living organism. Every organic substance that makes up an organism is produced in a chemical reaction controlled by enzymes.
Organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
A 6 carbon sugar manufactured by plants.
The process whereby two molecules combined and a water molecule is released.
A common sugar found in many foods and often called table sugar.
The process where as two monosaccharide separate, the water molecule is broken down, and the hydrogen atom and the hydroxyl group are attached to the appropriate carbon atoms of the monosaccharide.
A large molecule of monosaccharide units.
One of the primary substances that plants store as food.
Chains of glucose molecules; found in plant cell walls.
A chemical component in the exoskeletons of arthropods and in the cell walls of fungi.
A group of organic substances that are only slightly soluble in water but are very soluble in organic solvents such as alcohol, ether, acetone, and chloroform.
Unbranched chains of fourteen to twenty-eight carbon atoms that have carboxyl group added to one end.
The carboxyl end of the molecule that is polar and is attracted to water.
The other end that is repelled by water.
The fatty acid that occurs when each of the carbon atoms in a fatty acid molecule had two hydrogen atoms attached to it.
The fatty acid molecular structure that occurs when one or more of the carbon atoms are double bonded making it so there are fewer hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon backbone.
Composed of two fatty acid molecules attached to a glycerol molecule.
Have a carbon backbone of four different carbon rings plus a side chain of carbons.
What substances make up carbohydrates? What characteristics do carbohydrates have?
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen make up carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are organic compound and thought to have twice as many hydrogen atoms as they do oxygen atoms. Though that is not always true.
What are the primary functions of carbohydrates?
As both structural and energy storage compounds.
List several monosaccharides, several disaccharides, and several polysaccharides.
Monosaccharides – ribose, glucose, galactose, and fructose. Disaccharides – sucrose, maltose, and lactose. Polysaccharides – starch, glycogen, cellulose, and chitin.
Describe the difference between a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic molecule.
Hydrophilic is if the carboxyl end of the molecule is polar and is attached to water. Hydrophobic is if the other end is repelled by water.
Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated fatty acid. How are the physical characteristics affected?
Saturated is the fatty acid that occurs when each of the carbon atoms in a fatty acid molecule had two hydrogen atoms attached to it. Unsaturated is the fatty acid molecular structure that occurs when one or more of the carbon atoms are double bonded making it so there are fewer hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon backbone. In both saturated and unsaturated, temperature affects the physical characteristics.
What distinguishes a phospholipids form other lipids?
In the third carbon atom it has a phosphate-containing group attached to it rather then a fatty acid.
List several lipids.
Oils, waxes, fats, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, sterols, and cholesterol.
An organic compound that is composed of amino acids.
The basic building block of a protein molecule.
One that links the carboxyl group of one amino acid to an amino group of another amino acid.
A chain formed by many peptide bonds, as in the formation of a protein in many amino acids being bonded by peptide bonds.
The hereditary material.
The primary nucleic acid in most organisms.
The basic component of a DNA or RNA molecule; each is made up of sugar, a phosphate, and a base.
The process whereby a DNA molecule duplicates itself and forms a new DNA molecule.
The type of nucleic acid that forms from DNA and functions with ribosomes to form protein molecules.
Describe the four levels of a protein structure.
Primary structure – The sequence of amino acids in a single polypeptide chain.
Secondary structure – The polypeptide chain may form a coil, similar to a spiral staircase.
Tertiary structure – The overall shape of the protein molecule.
Quaternary structure – The bonding between the various subunits.
What gives a protein molecule its three-dimensional shape?
When the proper sequence of amino acids is arranged, the chain twists and the folds back upon itself giving it the three-dimensional shape.
What are the two primary nucleic acids?
DNA and RNA are the two primary ones.
Describe the structure of a DNA molecule.
A DNA molecule forms a double helix consisting of two stands attached at regular intervals.
What is unique about an RNA molecule?
RNA is a single, rather then a double, chain of nucleotides.
List two attributes of a catalyst.
One attribute is it affects the rate of reaction and another would be it does not change itself in the over all reaction.
Does the death of an organism result in increased or decreased entropy? Explain.
It results in increased entropy because when it dies, after the cells and molecules start to distinguish and become distorted.
Give two reasons living things need energy and describe how they illustrate the law of conservation.
Living organisms need energy for cell division and protein synthesis. These processes require conservation.
When something diffuses to the state of equilibrium, is that an example of an increase in entropy? Explain.
No, because it indicates that the net movement in any direction is zero.
Does a catalyst help or hinder an increase in entropy? Explain.
Either because in anabolism there is a decrease but in catabolism there is a increase.
What is unique about a DNA molecule?
When replicated it does not need a mold from other sources it can make copies of itself as serving as a blueprint for it.
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