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Biological Psychology: An Introduction to Behavioral, Cognitive, and Clinical Neuroscience, Fifth Edition
hypothesis that brain is composed of separate cells that are distinct structurally, metabolically, and functionally
nerve cell that has many dendrites and a single axon
nerve cell that has a single dendrite at one end and a single axon at the other end
aka monopolar neuron. nerve cell with a single branch that leaves cell body and then extends in two directions, a receptive pole and output pole
nerve cell that transmits motor messages, stimulating a muscle or gland
neuron that is neither a sensory neuron nor a motoneuron. it receives input from and send output to other neurons
star shaped glial cell with numerous processes that run in all directions
extremely small glial cells that remove cellular debris from injured or dead cells
node of ranvier
gap between successive segments of myelin sheath where the axon membrane is exposed
"many scars" disorder noted by widespread degeneration of myelin
type of glial cell that forms myelin in central nervous system
glial cell that forms myelin in peripheral nervous system
swelling of tissue in brain in response to injury
elaborate branching of dendrites of some neurons
cone-shaped area from which the axon originates out of the cell body. functionally the integration zone of neuron
branch of an axon from a single neuron
to provide neural input
caudal-most spinal nerves which extend beyond spinal cord
anatomical features of nervous system apparent to naked eye
peripheral nervous system. portion of system that includes all the nerves and neurons outside brain and spinal cord
central nervous system. portion of system that includes brain and spinal cord
collection of axons bundled together outside CNS
3 components of PNS
1) cranial nerves 2) spinal nerves 3) autonomic nervous system
connected directly to brain
connected at regular intervals to spinal cord
autonomic nervous system
regulatory system that primarily controls viscera (internal organs). glands and smooth muscles
sensory cranial nerves
I. olfactory II. optic VIII. vestibulocochlear (inner ear)
motor cranial nerves
III. oculomotor/IV. trochlear/VI. abducens
- move eyes.
XI. spinal accessory
- neck muscles.
- tongue muscles
sense/motor cranial nerves
- chewing/facial sensation.
- glands,muscles tongue.
- taste and throat muscles.
- internal organs
spinal dorsal root
sensory info input
spinal ventral root
top 8 segments of spinal cord, neck
12 segments of spinal cord, chest
5 segments of spinal cord, upper/lower back
5 segments of spinal cord, lower back
lowest spinal vertebra, tailbone
raised portion of brain
furrow/valley of brain
fissure dividing frontal lobe from parietal lobe
fissure dividing temporal lobe from others
sensory strip of cortex
motor control in frontal lobe
devoid of myelin, dominated by cell bodies
frontal part of forebrain, cerebral hemispheres
posterior of forebrain. thalamus and hypothalamus
part of hindbrain including cerebellum and pons
medulla. back part of brain
consists of midbrain, pons, and medulla
"seahorse". memory and learning
way station for sensory info
hunger, thirst, temperature regulation, reproduction and more
processes visual info
processes auditory info
superior and inferior colliculi
dendrite trees in cerebellum
axons rising to surface of cerebellum
cerebral cortex made of 6 layers
MOTOR CONTROL. group of forebrain nuclei. caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, substantia nigra
emotion and learning. amygdala, hippocampus, fornix, cingulate gyrus, olfactory bulb, mammillary bodies.
latin for almond. emotions, smell.
communicates with motoneurons
stretches from midbrain to medulla. many functions like sleep & arousal, temp regulation, and motor control
motor control, integration of sensory/motor, some aspects of cognition incl. memory
important motor control and sensory nuclei. info from ear first enters pons
most prominent kind of neuron in cerebral cortex. pyramid shaped body.
columns of neurons that extend through cortex
3 protective membranes. dura mater, pia mater, arachnoid. surround brian and spinal cord
tough mother. outermost layer
tender mother. innermost layer
weblike membrane between dura and pia mater
cerebrospinal fluid. acts as a shock absorber and medium for exchange of materials like nutrients between blood vessels and brain tissue
extends into all 4 lobes of hemisphere
specialized membrane lining ventricles that secretes CSF
damage to brain tissue due to insufficient blood flow from blockage or rupture of vessels
x-ray imaging of brain taken after injection of radiopaque dye giving detailed views of blood vessels
computerized axial tomography. x-ray radiation absorption analyzed to produce tissue density maps
magnetic resonance imaging. uses magnetic energy that causes protons to align then relax, emitting radio waves that differ for tissues of different density.
positron emission tomography. radioactive materials injected into bloodstream. detectors track the path and destination of chemicals during brain's activity
functional magnetic resonance imaging. rapidly oscillating magnetic fields used to detects small changes in matabolism i.e oxygen use by active regions.
transcranial magnetic stimulation. focal magnetic currents used to briefly stimulate parts of brain
magnetoencephalography. ultra-sensitive detectors SQUIDS detect changes in magnetic fields of neuronal activity.
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