Forms the cell's flexible outer surface. Regulates flow of material into and out of the cell. A flexible yet sturdy barrier that surrounds and contains the cytoplasm of a cell.
all of the cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus.
2 components: cytosol and organelles.
the fluid portion on cytoplasm, contains water, dissolved solutes, and suspended particles. within the cytosol there are several types of organelles
organelles have specific shape and function.
Golgi complex, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and mitochondria.
large organelle that houses most of a cell's DNA.
a single molecule of DNA associated with several proteins, contains thousands of hereditary units called genes that control most aspects of cellular structure and function.
fluid mosaic model
The basic structural framework of the plasma membrane. Two back to back layers made up of three types of lipid molecules: phospholipids, cholesterol and glycolipids.
extends into or through the lipid bilayer and are firmly embedded in it.
they span the entire lipid bilayer and protrude into both the cytosol and extracellular fluid.
not as firmly embedded in the membrane and are attached to membrane lipids or integral proteins at the inner or outer surface of the membrane.
Intracellular fluid (ICF)
Or cytosol; Fluid inside of the cell.
Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
Fluid outside the body cells.
1. the ECF that fills the microscopic spaces between the cells is called interstitial fluid.
2. the ECF in blood vessels is called plasma; in lymphatic vessels it is called lymph.
a passive process in which the net movement of a substance is from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. The substance moves because of its kinetic energy; diffusion continues until equilibrium is reached.
a passive process; the net movement of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. Water molecules pass through aquaporins.
a passive process that is accomplished with the assistance of transmembrane proteins functioning as carriers. Allows large molecules to fit through the protein pores and others that are insoluble in lipids to pass through the plasma membrane.
process by which substances are transported across plasma membranes with the expenditure of energy by the cell, typically from an area of lower concentration to higher concentration.
receptor mediated endocytosis
A highly selective type of endocytosis where cells take up specific ligands. A vesicle forms after a receptor protein in the plasma membrane recognizes and binds to a particular particle in the extracellular fluid.
2. vesicle formation
4. fusion with endosome
5. recycling pf receptors to plasma membrane
6. degradation in lysosomes
a form of endocytosis in which the cell engulfs large solid particles, such as worn-out cells, whole bacteria, or viruses. Two types of phagocytes are carry out phagocytosis: macrophages (located in body tissue) and neutrophils (type of white blood cell)
releases materials from a cell. movement of substances out of a cell in secretory vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents into the extracellular fluid.
active process. vesicles undergo endocytosis on one side of a cell, move across the cell and then undergo exocytosis on the opposite side.
somatic cell cycle
body cells, 2 daughter cells are cloned.
meiosis 1 and 2
reproductive cell division that happens in the gonads. start with 2 diploid, end up with 4 haploid. not cloned.
prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, and telophase I.
2) More similar to mitosis
prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, and telophase II.
having the number of chromosomes characteristically found in the somatic cell of an organism; having two hapoid sets of chromosomes, one each from the mother and father.
the exchange of a portion of one chromatid with another during meiosis. It permits an exchange of genes among chromatids and is one factor that results in genetic variation of progeny.
one of the small, threadlike structures in the nucleus of a cell, normally 46 in a human diploid cell that has genetic material; composed of DNA and proteins (histones) that form chromatin during interphase.
complex internal structure of cytoplasm consisting of microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments.
paired, cylindrical structures of a centrosomes, each consisting of a ring of microtubules and arranged at right angles to each other.
a dense network of small protein fibers near the nucleus of a cell, containing a pair of centrioles and pericentriolar material.
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