What are four visual cues that the brain responds to?
Color, form, depth, and movement.
What did Aristotle believe about light and color?
They are different names for the same phenomenon.
What were the six primary colors that Leonardo da Vinci proposed?
White, black, red, yellow, green, and blue.
What did the British physician and scientist, Thomas Young, first suggest?
The link between color and the human eye.
What did Hermann von Helmholtz discover in 1851?
The invention of the ophthalmoscope, which enabled doctors to see inside a person's eye.
What was the combined work of Young and Helmholtz?
The tri-chromatic theory, which explained how the eye physically sees color.
Every color we see can be made with whichthree basic, primary colors?
Red, green, and blue.
What is additive color?
Mixing the colors red, green, and blue.
What are the three primary colors used for paint pigments and the printing press?
Magenta, yellow, and cyan.
What happens when colors in paints are mixed together?
Every color is absorbed except the wavelength that we see reflected back.
What is subtractive color?
A method of color mixing in which as they are mixed, they become darker.
What three different methods can be used to describe color?
Objective, comparative, and subjective.
What is the objective method for describing colors?
The perception of color as a result of various light wavelengths stimulating the cones along the back of the retina.
How is a color accurately measured?
By the location of its wavelength on the electromagnetic spectrum.
How is the length of an energy wave measured?
In parts per millimeter.
How wide is the wavelength of the visible light spectrum?
300 nanometers, 1/100 of an inch.
What can be used to measure a color's unique temperature that distinguishes it from every other color?
The objective method.
Why does the eye notice the color red easily?
It has a long wavelength, and stays inside the eye longer than any of the other visible colors. The cornea protects the eye from shorter wavelengths, allowing longer wavelengths to pass through to the retina easier.
What is the comparative method for describing colors?
The comparison of one person's conception of an accepted standard color to another.
What is the subjective method for describing colors?
A person's mental state or association with an object which strongly affects the emotional response to a color.
What are the three types of forms?
Dots, lines, and shapes.
What is a dot?
The simplest form that can be written with a stylus.
What is a line?
Dots of the same size which are drawn so closely together that there is no space between them.
What does texture do?
Stimulates the visual sense by the image itself and the tactile sense through memory.
What are shapes?
The combination of dots and lines into patterns, that sit on the plane of a visual field without depth, and define the outside edges of objects.
What are the three basic shapes?
Parallelograms, circles, and triangles.
What is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging device (MRI) commonly used for?
It obtains a high quality three dimensional view of inside the body.
What are the eight factors of depth?
Space, size, color, lighting, textural gradients, interposition, time, and perspective.
How does space affect depth perception?
It depends on the frame in which an image is located.
How does size affect depth perception?
If the viewer is aware of an object's actual size, or is able to view it next to an object of known size.
How can color affect depth perception?
Warm colored objects with high contrast appear closer than cool colored objects with more neutral tones.
How can lighting affect depth perception?
The intensity and postion of the light reveal details and create shadows.
How can texture gradients affect depth perception?
The difference in their size contributes to the illusion that the scene fades into the background.
How can interposition affect depth perception?
The position of an object in relevance to other objects or the layers of a scene.
How can time affect depth perception?
The amount of attention a viewer gives when looking at an object within a visual array.
According to Evelyn Hatcher, what are the three major forms of perspective?
Illusionary, geometrical, and conceptual.
What are the four types of movement?
Real, apparent, graphic, and implied.
What is real movement?
Actual movement seen by a viewer of some other person, animal, or object.
What is apparent movement?
No actual movement, instead a series of images which suggest movement.
What is graphic movement?
The result of motion when the eyes scan a field of view.
What is implied movement?
Motion that a viewer perceives in a still, single image without any movement of an object, image, or eye.
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