Professor?s eyes only? You may be surprised to learn? ?that over 25% of all undergraduate students do not utilize their required course material. ?student retention is dropping nationwide and while the higher education community has done a remarkable job of opening the doors of college to more and more students, we have not seen equal strides in the number of students who actually complete four-year degrees. (Education Trust, 2004) See the next slide on what you can do? Chapter slides begin on slide 14 Professor: Course/Section: Professor?s eyes only? What you can do? The top factors motivating a student to use their adopted books all involve whether the material is immediately used, referred to, or assessed from in the classroom. Please take a few minutes the first day of class to explain and demonstrate why you adopted your book and accompanying technology. The next few slides show the book, technology products, and messaging to students that indicates they will be responsible for the content. Feel free to customize the information or delete from your slide set. Professor: Course/Section: Cole/Smith Criminal Justice in America, 5E Professor: Course/Section: This is your required course material You will need this material for: - tests and quizzes - homework and reading assignments Some of the reasons why you need to use the new edition? Professor: Course/Section: Late-breaking developments in EVERY chapter such as: The growth of cyber crime. Homeland security and its great impact on the criminal justice field. The latest theories of crime causation. Expanded coverage of policing. The latest coverage of courts. Current issues related to capital punishment. New and expanded coverage of corrections issues and juvenile justice. Use of technology, and much more. More reasons why you need to use the new edition? Professor: Course/Section: New ?Careers in Criminal Justice? features in every chapter give you a real understanding of what it?s like to work in various policing, courts, corrections, and security positions?helping you see which of these careers might suit their interests. New ?Comparative Perspective? features give you a clearer understanding of the globalization of crime and the need for international cooperation in criminal justice. If you purchased a used book, order ThomsonNOW with ISBN 0495500720 Save time, learn more, and succeed in the course with ThomsonNOW, an online suite of resources that give you the choices and tools you need to study smarter and get the grade. Ethics Writing Activities Interactive Video Lessons Integrated eBook Learning Modules Flashcards & Study Slides Checkpoints Animations & Role Plays Improve your grade! Mobile Content Study Guide Simply load these files into your digital music player and you can review course material while walking to class, driving, working out! Mobile Content Study Guide include files for each chapter of the textbook include quizzing and glossary materials. Purchase only those chapters you need to study at www.thomsonedu.com Professor: Course/Section: InfoTrac College Edition Do your research 24/7! Easy access to over 10 million full-text articles Nearly 5000 academic journals, magazines, and periodicals. Do your research from home, work, or your dorm room! InfoTrac can be used for ALL of your courses! Includes InfoWrite, a web-based training tool designed to help you develop your writing skills. HOW TO SEARCH THE DATABASE There are 3 ways to search: Subject Guide Keyword Search Advanced Search There is also a Limit Search function, which limits the search by date, journal, or keyword. InfoWrite offers the following benefits: Facilitates the writing process Assists with the organization and presentation of ideas Helps you articulate key concepts Improves grammar, spelling and correct word usage Aids your creativity Also included: Critical Thinking with InfoTrac APA vs. MLA documentation style Essay Topics Research and the Internet ?and much more! INFOWRITE InfoTrac College Edition, your Online Research and Learning Center, includes InfoWrite, a web-based training tool designed to help you develop your writing skills. www.thomsonedu.com Giving you plenty of current information, this new web site helps you investigate and focus on criminal justice career choices that could be right for you! The site includes: Career Profiles (video testimonials from a variety of practicing professionals) Interest Assessment (helping you decide which CJ careers are suited to you) Career Planner (resume writing tips and success job search strategies) Links for Reference (direct links to federal, state, and local agencies where you can get contact information) Careers in Criminal Justice Website Features six vignettes that allow students to play various roles as they explore all aspects of the criminal justice system such as policing, investigation, courts, sentencing, and corrections. Ordering ISBN: 0534568319 CD?s available to bring Criminal Justice to life! This CD provides you with realistic criminal scenarios. As you walk through each phase of a case, the interactive environment of this CD allows you to participate in the criminal justice process. Ordering ISBN: 0534615317 Students Please Read? If your textbook doesn?t already come with the helpful study aids we?ve discussed, go to your local college bookstore or go on-line to the textbook URL ? www.thomsonedu.com/criminaljustice/cole Professor: Course/Section: Chapter 2: Crime and Justice in America Chapter 2 Learning Objectives How much crime is there, and how is crime measured? Who are victims of crime? What are the major theories about the causes of crime? Crime Classification Crime can be classified may different ways Distinction between mala in se and mala prohibita Felonies or misdemeanors Nature of the act Types of Crime Visible crime Occupational crime Organized crime Crime without victims Political crimes Cyber crimes Visible Crime Known as street crime or ordinary crime Shoplifting to homicide Hardest crimes to hide; least profitable Violent crime; property crimes; public order crimes Occupational Crime Criminal offenses committed through opportunities created in a legal business or occupation Shrewd business practices rather than illegal acts If the crime is done right, it will likely never be discovered Organized Crime Refers to the framework within which acts are committed Crime syndicate has organizational structure, rules, division of labor, capacity for violence Network of activities, usually cutting across state and national borders Crime Without Victims Crimes against morality often thought to be victimless Prostitution Gambling Drug sales and use Often private exchange of illegal goods Political Crimes Crimes against the government that are carried out for ideological purposes Treason Sedition (rebellion) Espionage In western democracies few political crimes Cyber Crimes The use of computers and the Internet to commit acts against people, property, public order, or morality The use of the computer to steal information, resources, funds Pornography Computer hackers Measuring Crime The uniform crime reports The National crime victimization surveys Lack of accurate means to fully determine the amount of crime Most homicides and auto thefts are reported to the police Many crimes are not reported to police Percent of Victimizations Not Reported to Police Slide Chapter 2 02. 01 see next slide. Is Crime Increasing or Decreasing? Uniform Crime Report (UCR) An annual statistical summary of crimes reported by the local police to the FBI Voluntary reporting by local, state, and federal law enforcement to the FBI Report includes only 29 types of crimes The report alone provides a useful but incomplete picture of crime levels The National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS) Surveys of victims conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau Same people are interviewed twice a year for three years; asked if they have been victimized in the last six months. Provides a more complete picture of the nature and extent of crime than UCR Focus is victim?s perception Trends in Violent Crime (1973 to 2004) Who Becomes a Victim? Not everyone has an equal chance of becoming a victim of crime Teenage black males greater chance of being victimized Race is a key factor in the exposure to crime More men commit crime than women Causes of Crime Various theories exist about causes of crime and how to prevent crime Classical and Positivist theories Biological theories Psychological Sociological theories Life Course Classical Theories Classical School founder Beccaria Criminal behavior is rational People choose to commit crime after weighing costs and benefits Fear of punishment prevents crime Severity, certainty, and speed of punishment affects level of crime Punishment should fit the crime Positivist Theories Use science to study the body, mind, and environment of the offender Behavior stems from social, biological, and psychological factors Human behavior is free will Criminals are different from non-criminals Science can be used to discover causes of crime and to treat Biological Theories Certain people are Criminogenic; they are born criminals Primitive physical traits; strong canine teeth, huge jaws, high cheekbones Traits are acquired through heredity Crime is explained by physiological and neurological factors Cesare Lombroso coined the term "criminogenic" Psychological Theories Emphasize crime is caused by a mental condition, a personality disturbance, or limited intellect Childhood development and personalities affect involvement in crime Freud: id, ego, superego Psychopath, sociopath, antisocial Sociological Theories Emphasize crime is caused by social conditions Social groups shape people?s behavior Criminals are made, not born criminal External factors make one become criminal Race, age, gender, income are factors Other Crime Theories Social structure theories: social change and urbanization; anomie Social process theories: learning, control, labeling theories Social conflict theories: control, have and have-nots Life course theories: identify factors affecting criminal behavior Other Crime Theories Life course theories: identify factors affecting start, duration, nature, and end of criminal behavior Life course theories consider factors such as; marriage, employment, job Theories of criminality of woman; focuses on woman and increases in crime among woman Chapter 2 Summary Theories of crime tend to focus on poor and visible crime Most theories focus on male behavior No universal cause of crime Six major types of crime Measuring crime is difficult and often inaccurate
Want to see the other 39 page(s) in Chapter 2?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!