Chapter 20: Classification
Last Modified: 2011-06-25
- developed by Carolus Linnaeus
- two-part naming system (first word is genus, capitalized; second word is specific epithet, not capitalized)
- in italics
diagram that indicates common ancestors and lines of descent
- trace the history of life in broad terms and can be dated
- carbon dating
1. fossils cannot always tell which groups are related
2. fossils are incomplete and usually only have the hard body parts, teeth, and bones, and not the soft parts
- character similarity that stems from having a common ancestor
- protein found in all aerobic organisms
- used to measure the difference of amino acid structures in an organism to show how closely related organisms are
- reliable indicator of similarity btwn organisms
- helped scientists divide up living things into three domains
- DNA double helix of both organisms stripped into one strand and allowed to combine with each other
- better the strands connect = more closely related
- nucleic acid changes are neutral & not affected by adaptation
- fairly constant rates lets us measure how long ago the organisms split
1. draw a table that lists all the characters for all the taxa to examine which characteristics are ANCESTRAL or DERIVED
2. organize the derived characters in order from when they evolved (CLADE); clades can be diff sizes if 2 organ. share a der. cha.
- species classified according to the # of their similarities
- ignores possiblity of convergence or parallelism
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