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West Virginia University
Exercise Physiology 365
Chapter 20 Fleshcards
Chapter 20 Fleshcards
Exercise Physiology 365
West Virginia University
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The two categories of hormones are
Steroid-derived hormones and polypeptide hormones
Steroid hormones are (soluble/insoluble) in blood plasma; receptors are usually found _________.
Insoluble in blood plasma; receptors usually within the target cell
Polypeptide hormones are (soluble/insoluble) in blood plasma; receptors are usually located _________.
Soluble in blood plasma; receptors usually on cell membrane of target cell
The major function of hormones is
to alter the rates of cellular reactions of specific target cells.
The 4 mechanisms by which hormones work are:
1. Modifying the rate of intracellular protein synthesis via DNA stimulation
2. Changing rate of enzyme activity
3. Altering plasma membrane transport via 2nd messenger
4. Inducing secretory activity
Target cell's activation by hormone depends on 3 factors:
1. Blood hormone concentration
2. Relative number of target cell receptors for that hormone
3. Sensitivity/Strength of bond between hormone and receptor
_______ is an intracellular messenger produced from the binding hormone reacting to the enzyme andenylate cyclase.
The "2nd Messenger" (___________) works by activating
Cyclic AMP works by activating a specific protein kinase, which then activates a target enzyme to alter cellular function
Hormones increase enzyme activity in one of 3 ways:
1. Stimulating enzyme production
2. Combining with the enzyme to alter its shape and ability to act (
3. activating inactive forms of the enzyme thereby increasing total amount of the enzyme
All protein hormones secrete in a ______ manner.
Plasma concentration of hormone depends on 4 factors:
1. Amount synthesized in host gland
2. rate of either catabolism or secretion into the blood
3. Quantity of transport proteins available (steroids only)
4. Plasma volume changes
Endocrine glands are stimulated by one of three methods:
1. Hormonal stimulation
2. Humoral stimulation
3. Neural Stimulation
The master gland is another name for the
The pituitary gland is located
beneath the base of the brain
The pituitary gland secretes ______ different peptide hormones.
6 Different Hormones
The pituitary gland is controlled by
The hypothalamus secretes ______________ for each of the primary hormones released from the anterior pituitary
The 6 hormones produced in the anterior pituitary are:
1. Growth hormone
3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone
5. Follicle-Stimulating hormone
6. Luteinizing hormone
Growth hormone is an insulin (agonist/antagonist).
Both fit and sedentary individuals show similar increases in GH when exercising to __________; sedentary individuals show greater response during _____________.
The cause of GH release during exercise is unknown. Three possibilities are:
1. Direct Stimulatory Effect
2. May stimulate cholinergic pathways to cause release
3. May work through endogenous opioids
The function of Insulin-like growth factors is to
mediate many of growth hormone's effects
_______ cells synthesize IGF-1 and IGF-2 in response to ________________.
Liver cells synthesize IGF in response to GH stimulation.
IGF is released ________ hours after GH stimulation
8 - 30 hours
Thyrotropin also known as Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is secreted from __________.
The Anterior Pituitary
The three functions of Thyrotropin are:
1. Controlling the amount of hormone secretion by the thyroid
2. Increases thyroid cell metabolism
3. Maintains growth and development of the thyroid gland
Increase in TSH occurs (consistently/inconsistently) in response to exercise.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), also known as Corticotropin, in secreted from _________.
The Anterior Pituitary
ACTH functions as part of the __________axis and regulates hormones secreted by the _________.
regulates secretion by the
The three DIRECT actions of ACTH are:
1. Enhance FFA mobilization from adipose
2. Increase gluconeogenesis
3. Stimulate protein catabolism
Release of ACTH is controlled by _________ and _________.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP)
Limited data has indicated that ACTH concentration may (increase/decrease) proportionally with exercise intensity and duration.
Prolactin is secreted from _______.
the anterior pituitary
The main function of Prolactin is to
initiate and support milk secretion
Prolactin (increases/decreases) at high exercise intensities and recovers toward baseline within ____ minutes.
Increases, and recovers within 45 minutes
A consequence of repeated exercise-induced prolactin release is
alteration of the menstrual cycle
Gonadotropic hormones are secreted by
the anterior pituitary
The 2 gonadotropic hormones are
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH)
In males, FSH functions to
aid in sperm development
In females, FSH functions to
initiate growth in the ovaries and stimulate them to secrete estrogen
In males, LH functions to
stimulate testes to release testosterone
In females, LH functions to
cause estrogen secretion and rupture of follicle
Gonadotropic hormones are released in a ________ manner.
_______ exercise may stimulate the release of gonadotropic hormones (especially _____ )
______________________ training has been reported to decrease the pulse amplitude and frequency of gonadotropic hormones.
Chronic High-Intensity Aerobic Training
The posterior pituitary gland is an outgrowth of the ________, and is thus composed of ______ tissue
outgrowth of the hypothalamus, composed of nervous tissue
Hormones secreted from the _________ are actually made in the hypothalamus and then secreted into the _________ to be stored until needed.
The 2 hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary are:
ADH and Oxytocin
ADH functions to
stimulate water reabsorption in the kidneys, decreasing urine output
The 2 functions of oxytocin are
1. Initiating muscle contraction in uterus
2. Stimulating ejection of milk
Exercise (is/is not) and important stimulant for ADH secretion and release
exercise IS an important stimulant for ADH release
The thyroid is located
in the neck, just below the larynx
The two protein-iodine-bound hormones secreted by the thyroid are
) and Triiodothyronine (T
) is converted to ____ by most receptor cells
) functions to raise the metabolism of all cells except
all cells except: brain, spleen, testes, uterus, and thyroid itself
An abnormal increase of thyroxine (T
) raises BMR up to ____ times.
up to 4 times
) acts faster/slower than T
, and is secreted more/less quantity than T
acts faster than T
, but is secreted in less quantity
Thyroid hormones provide important regulation for:
1. Tissue growth and development
2. Skeletal and nervous system formation
3. Maturation and reproductive capabilities
Thyroid hormones play a role in increasing blood pressure by causing
an increase in adrenergic receptors in blood vessels
During exercise, blood levels of free T4 increase by approx. ___%. (possibly caused by elevated ____)
Increase ~35% (possibly caused by elevated core temperature)
The parathyroid gland is made of ___ small glands embedded in the posterior aspect of the _________.
4 small glands in the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland
Blood calcium balance is controlled by
Release of parathyroid hormones is triggered by a decrease in ________ and is inhibited by increasing levels.
blood calcium levels
Parathyroid hormone stimulates three target organs:
bone, kidney, and small intestine
Physical activity may __________ PTH, an effect that may contribute to the positive effects of exercise on _________.
may INCREASE PTH....positive effects of BONE MASS
The adrenal medulla is part of the _______ NS.
Adrenal medulla works to prolong sympathetic effects by secreting two hormones collectively called ________
The 2 catecholamines are
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Norepinephrine serves as __________ precursor and also acts as a _________ when secreted by sympathetic nerve endings.
An EPINEPHRINE precursor...acts as a NEUROTRANSMITTER
Nerve impulses from the _________ stimulate adrenal medulla to increase catecholamines.
Epinephrine's major effects are on the
heart, vessels, and glands
Norepinephrine inceases at ____% of VO
Max; Epinephrine increases at ____% of VO
NE at 50%, epinephrine at 60%
Increased epinephrine from adrenal medulla is proportional to the _________ of exercise.
The three types of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex are
Mineralcorticoids function to
regulate salts such as Na
in the ECF
_______ is the most important mineralcorticoid, comprising ___% of all mineralorticoids.
Aldosterone is 95% of all mineralcorticoids
Aldosterone regulates _________ in the _______ of the kidneys.
sodium reabsorption in the distal tubules
For every Na
reabsorbed in the kidneys, a _______ is secreted, which helps maintain proper mineral balance.
Increased aldosterone triggers and increase in Na
reabsorption resulting in
little Na+ or fluid voided in the urine
An increase in aldosterone triggers an increase in Q and BP via the ________ mechanism.
Hypothalamus will release ____ causing the anterior pituitary to release ______ which promotes the release of glucocorticoids by adrenal cortex.
Corticotropin-releasing factor and ACTH
________ is the major glucocorticoid and affects the metabolism of
Cortisol affects metabolism of glucose, protein, and FFA
Glucocorticoids are ________ hormones with actions similar to certain sex steroids.
The primary gonadocorticoid is _______, which has effects similar to ____________.
DHEA similar to testosterone
Gonadocorticoids are responsible for small amounts of ________ and _________.
estrogen and progesterone
Testosterone initiates ____ production and __________ characteristics.
sperm production and male secondary sex characteristics
Testosterone causes ____ to be released.
In untrained males, both resistance exercise and moderate aerobic exercise increase serum and free levels after __________ minutes.
15 - 20 minutes
Testosterone interacts with neural receptors to ________ neurotransmitter release; alters ____of NMJ.
increases neurotransmitter release; alters size of NMJ
The two estrogens are
estradiol and progesterone
The three functions of progesterone are:
1. regulating female reproductive cycle
2. uterine smooth muscle contraction
The two functions of estradiol are:
1. increased FFA mobilization from adipose
2. inhibits glucose uptake by peripheral tissues
Oligomenorrhea is defined as
35 - 90 days between periods
Secondary amenorrhea is the cessation of mentruation due to
excessively low body fat
The three conditions of the Female Athlete Triad are:
1. Disordered eating
Disordered eating occurs in ___% of female athletes.
15 - 60 %
The prevalence of amenorrhea in weight-related sports ranges from ______% (versus 5% in general population).
25 - 65%
The 4 ways that estrogen affects bone metabolism are:
1. Increased intestinal calcium absorption
2. Reduced urinary calcium excretion
3. Inhibits bone resorption
4. Decreases bone turnover
The ASCM recommends intervention begins within _____ of onset of amenorrhea.
The 4 recommendations for remedying the female athlete triad are:
1. Reduce training level by 10 - 20%
2. Gradually increase energy intake
3. Increase bodyweight 2 - 3%
4. Maintain calcium intake of 1500 mg daily
The pancreas is located ________ and secretes __________.
located below the stomach, secretes insulin and glucagon
The pancreas is composed of two different types of tissues:
1. Acini (exocrine function)
2. Islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells)
The Acini secrete
Glucagon is secreted by ______; insulin is secreted by ________
Glucagon secreted by α-cells; insulin secreted by
β-cells, both types in the islets of langerhans
Glucagon is an insulin (agonist/antagonist) whose main function is to
antagonist; main function is to stimulate glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis by the liver
Glucagon is regulated by
the amount of glucose in the bloodTh
The major function of insulin is to regulate glucose entry into all tissues except
Secretion of insulin is directly controlled by ______ in the blood that passes through ______.
glucose levels in the blood, passes through pancreas
Non-insulin glucose transporter is called _____; insulin-mediated glucose transporter is called ______
GLUT-1 and GLUT-4
At rest, most glucose enters the cell by a ______ carrier.
When glucose and insulin levels are high or during exercise, most glucose enters the muscle by _____ transporter.
GLUT-4 is expressed exclusively in these 3 tissues:
1. Cardiac muscle
2. Skeletal muscle
3. Adipose tissue
GLUT-4 is specifically responsible for glucose utilization that is stimulated by _____.
Exercise increases peripheral clearance in the presence of insulin through an _____ and an ______ mechanism.
insulin-dependent and insulin-independent mechanism
During rest, GLUT-4 resides near
the T-tubules of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
When there is an influx of ions such as Na
, what does GLUT-4 do?
It relocates to the cell surface through a
separate insulin-independent mechanism
to promote glucose uptake.
Why does exercise facilitate blood glucose transport?
there are more transporters present (GLUT-4 relocates to cell surface)
During exercise, insulin levels ____ significantly, most likely due to ______.
insulin decreases, most likely due to epinephrine which suppresses insulin secretion
Levels of insulin ____ as a function of exercise duration and intensity.
Acute exercise takes away the inhibitory effects of insulin on
Acute exercise minimizes glucose uptake by
With prolonged exercise, glucose and insulin decrease which enhances ____ and ____ availability.
lipolysis and FFA availability.
Described the effects of exercise on insulin levels in trained versus untrained subjects.
insulin levels do not fall as far in TRAINED individuals
___% of cardiac patients have diabetes.
Diabetes is the ___ leading cause of death by disease.
A RANDOM blood glucose of greater than or equal to___ mg/dL is indicative of diabetes.
A FASTING blood glucose of greater than or equal to ____mg/dL is indicative of diabetes.
A FASTING blood glucose of greater than or equal to ____ mg/dL is indicative of impaired glucose tolerance.
110 - 125
Explain the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. What criteria indicative of diabetes? of impaired glucose tolerance?
Ingest a glucose drink, then 2 hours later glucose readings taken.
A positive reading for diabetes is >200 mg/dL
A positive reading for impaired glucose tolerance is 140 - 200 mg/dL
A syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from impaired insulin secretion and/or effectiveness.
Type 1 diabetes represents ___% of all diabetes cases.
5 - 10%
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by
an absolute deficiency of insulin
Which type of diabetes is more severe for glucose homeostasis, especially during exercise?
How many cases of diabetes are there in the U.S.?
about 16 million
Type 2 diabetes is related to 3 factors:
1. inability to respond properly to insulin's actions
2. abnormal but relatively well-maintained insulin secretion
3. increased hepatic glucose production
What capacities of skeletal muscle are negatively affected by insulin resistance?
glycolytic and oxidative capacities
What are the 5 benefits of physical activity as it relates to Type 2 diabetes?
1. decreased plasma glucose levels
2. reduced CVD risk
3. weight loss
4. psychological profile
5. delayed onset/prevention of disease
Three potential systemic problems when exercising with type 2 diabetes are:
1. retinal hemorrhage
3. macrovascular lesions
4 potential cardiovascular problems when exercising with type 2 diabetes are:
1. cardiac arrhythmia
2. ischemic heart disease
3. high BP
post-exercise orthostatic hypertension
2 potential metabolic problems when exercising with type 2 diabetes are:
3 potential musculoskeletal problems when exercising with type 2 diabetes are:
1. Foot ulcers
2. neuropathy-related injury
3. degenerative joint disease
Short-term exercise, lasting ____ minutes, causes few changes in immune system. Long-term exercise, lasting _____ minutes alters the immune system for ___ hours post-exercise.
short-term exercise lasts 5 - 75 minutes
long-term exercise lasts 90 or more minutes, alters immune system for 3- 72 hours
Describe the "Open-Window" Hypothesis. How long does the immunodepression last?
Immune system is elevated during both moderate and severe exercise, but sever is followed by immunodepression.
The immunodepression may last for 1 - 24 hours
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